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Chapter 10 - Exercise and the Brain–Gut Axis

Over the past few decades, research involving brain-gut crosstalk has rapidly evolved to become an important topic in preclinical and clinical research. In the health and sports environment, a paradigm shift in the bidirectional interactions between the gut–brain is essential for exercise-induced rehabilitation strategies and preventive interventions. However, there are caveats to consider when interpreting the mechanism by which physical exercise can exert its effects on the brain–gut ...

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Exerkines: A Crosstalk between Lactate Production, Exercise and Mental Health

Muscle skeletal striated cells secrete a wide range of proteins called myokines or “exerkines”, which in turn perform autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine functions. For being able to act in the communication between skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and mainly the brain, exerkines play a prominent role and potential influence on health promotion. Furthermore, we detected in the literature that one of these potential therapeutic substances derived from muscle contraction is a molecule ...

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Acute endurance exercise modulates growth differentiation factor 11 in cerebrospinal fluid of healthy young adults

Objective: Strong evidence supports the benefits of exercise for healthy ageing, including reduced risk of neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies suggested interorgan crosstalk as a key element of systemic adaptive response, however, the role of specific molecules in mediating exercise effects on the human brain are not fully understood. In the present study, we explored the exercise-related regulation of Growth Differentiation Factor 11 (GDF11) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood. Methods: The ...

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The role of myokines in cancer: crosstalk between skeletal muscle and tumor

Loss of skeletal muscle mass is a primary feature of sarcopenia and cancer cachexia. In cancer patients, tumor-derived inflammatory factors promote muscle atrophy via tumor-to-muscle effects, which is closely associated with poor prognosis. During the past decade, skeletal muscle has been considered to function as an autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine organ by releasing numerous myokines. The circulating myokines can modulate pathophysiology in the other organs, as well as in the tumor microenvironment, ...

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Bone–muscle crosstalk following exercise plus Ursolic acid by myomiR-133a/Cx43-Runx2 axis in aged type 2 diabetes rat models

Natural bioactive compound, Ursolic acid (UA), plus different types of exercise may exert the action on glycemic control, leading to clinical benefits in the prevention and treatment of aging/diabetes-associated complications. So, this study examined the effects of eight weeks combination of 250 mg of UA per day per kilogram of body weight of rat as well as resistance/endurance training on miR-133a expression across serum, bone marrow, skeletal muscle, and Connexin 43 (Cx43)-Runt-related ...

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Editorial: Inter-organ crosstalk during exercise in health and disease: Extracellular vesicles as new kids on the block

Within exercise physiology, the study of factors potentially mediating interorgan crosstalk during and after exercise is a fascinating field of research. As exercise activates a plethora of metabolic pathways in several tissues, organs and systems, examining the underlying biological mechanisms contributing to exercise related metabolic benefits is imperative. Since two decades, the skeletal muscle is known to secrete humoral factors into the circulation in response to exercise, originally described ...

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Exercise-derived skeletal myogenic exosomes as mediators of intercellular crosstalk: a major player in health, disease, and exercise

Exosomes are extracellular membrane vesicles that contain biological macromolecules such as RNAs and proteins. It plays an essential role in physiological and pathological processes as carrier of biologically active substances and new mediator of intercellular communication. It has been reported that myokines secreted by the skeletal muscle are wrapped in small vesicles (e.g., exosomes), secreted into the circulation, and then regulate the receptor cells. This review discussed the regulation ...

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Exercise improves subchondral bone microenvironment through regulating bone-cartilage crosstalk

Articular cartilage degeneration has been proved to cause a variety of joint diseases, among which osteoarthritis is the most typical. Osteoarthritis is characterized by articular cartilage degeneration and persistent pain, which affects the quality of life of patients as well as brings a heavy burden to society. The occurrence and development of osteoarthritis is related to the disorder of the subchondral bone microenvironment. Appropriate exercise can improve the subchondral bone microenvironment, ...

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Potential role of irisin in digestive system diseases

Digestive system diseases (DSD) are very complex conditions that severely threaten human health. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new pharmacological treatment strategies. Irisin, a myokine discovered in 2012, is produced by fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5), which is a transmembrane protein. Irisin is involved in promoting the browning of white adipose tissue, the regulation of energy metabolism, and the improvement of insulin resistance. Irisin is also an essential ...

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Circulating level of β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA), a novel myokine-like molecule, is inversely associated with fat mass in patients with heart failure

Results of experimental studies have shown that β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA), an exercise-induced myokine-like molecule, is an endogenous negative regulator of fat mass in mice, but it remains unclear whether that is the case in humans, though an enhanced BAIBA concentration in patients receiving sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors was found in our recent study. The objective of this study was to analyze the determinants of circulating BAIBA concentration in humans, with focus ...

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Platelet-derived exerkine CXCL4/platelet factor 4 rejuvenates hippocampal neurogenesis and restores cognitive function in aged mice

The beneficial effects of physical activity on brain ageing are well recognised, with exerkines, factors that are secreted into the circulation in response to exercise, emerging as likely mediators of this response. However, the source and identity of these exerkines remain unclear. Here we provide evidence that an anti-geronic exerkine is secreted by platelets. We show that platelets are activated by exercise and are required for the exercise-induced increase in hippocampal precursor cell proliferation ...

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Exercise increases MEF2A abundance in rat cardiac muscle by downregulating microRNA-223-5p

Exercise plays an important role in cardiac health and enhances the transport of glucose in cardiac muscle by increasing the glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) content at the cell membrane. The GLUT4 gene is a target of myocyte enhancer transcription factor 2A (MEF2A). Several transcription factors are regulated by microRNAs (miRs), small non-coding RNAs that control gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. In this study we tested the hypothesis that exercise regulates the expression of miR-223 ...

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Effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on skeletal muscle atrophy, function, and myokine profile in diabetic myopathy

Purpose: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to insulin deficiency and/or loss of its action. Diabetic myopathy causes functional limitations in diabetic patients. The beneficial effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) are widely reported. We have hypothesized that HIIT application would prevent the development of diabetic myopathy. Methods: Male, Wistar albino rats (10 W) were randomly divided into four groups (1)Control(C), (2)Diabetes(DM), (3)Training(HIIT), ...

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Irisin as an agent for protecting against osteoporosis: A review of the current mechanisms and pathways

Background: Osteoporosis is recognized as a skeletal disorder characterized by diminished bone tissue quality and density. Regular physical exercise is widely acknowledged to preserve and enhance bone health, but the detailed molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Irisin, a factor derived from muscle during exercise, influences bone and muscle. Since its discovery in 2012, irisin has been found to promote bone growth and reduce bone resorption, establishing a tangible link between muscle exertion ...

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Endothelial ERα promotes glucose tolerance by enhancing endothelial insulin transport to skeletal muscle

The estrogen receptor (ER) designated ERα has actions in many cell and tissue types that impact glucose homeostasis. It is unknown if these include mechanisms in endothelial cells, which have the potential to influence relative obesity, and processes in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle that impact glucose control. Here we show that independent of impact on events in adipose tissue, endothelial ERα promotes glucose tolerance by enhancing endothelial insulin transport to skeletal muscle. ...

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REPTOR and CREBRF encode key regulators of muscle energy metabolism

Metabolic flexibility of muscle tissue describes the adaptive capacity to use different energy substrates according to their availability. The disruption of this ability associates with metabolic disease. Here, using a Drosophila model of systemic metabolic dysfunction triggered by yorkie-induced gut tumors, we show that the transcription factor REPTOR is an important regulator of energy metabolism in muscles. We present evidence that REPTOR is activated in muscles of adult flies with gut yorkie-tumors, ...

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Acute effects of caffeine supplementation on taekwondo performance: the influence of competition level and sex

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of acute caffeine supplementation on physical performance and perceived exertion during taekwondo-specific tasks in male and female athletes with varying expertise. In a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study design, 52 young athletes from elite (n = 32; 16 males and 16 females) and sub-elite competitive level (n = 20; 10 males and 10 females) participated. Athletes performed taekwondo-specific ...

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Toward Exercise Guidelines for Optimizing Fat Oxidation During Exercise in Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression

Background: Exercise training performed at maximal fat oxidation (FATmax) is an efficient non-pharmacological approach for the management of obesity and its related cardio-metabolic disorders. Objectives: Therefore, this work aimed to provide exercise intensity guidelines and training volume recommendations for maximizing fat oxidation in patients with obesity. Methods: A systematic review of original articles published in English, Spanish or French languages was carried out in EBSCOhost, PubMed ...

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Crosstalk between Bone and Muscles during Physical Activity

Bone–muscle crosstalk is enabled thanks to the integration of different molecular signals, and it is essential for maintaining the homeostasis of skeletal and muscle tissue. Both the skeletal system and the muscular system perform endocrine activity by producing osteokines and myokines, respectively. These cytokines play a pivotal role in facilitating bone–muscle crosstalk. Moreover, recent studies have highlighted the role of non-coding RNAs in promoting crosstalk between bone and muscle ...

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Effect of exercise on the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis in a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease

Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis dysregulation was suggested to play a crucial role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study investigated the effects of exercise on HPG hormones in an AD rat model, as a possible mechanism underlying the favorable effect of exercise on AD. Forty male Wistar albino rats 2–3 months old were subdivided randomly into two groups (n = 20 each): AD group (injected intraperitoneally with aluminum chloride (70 mg/kg/day) for 6 ...

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Moderate intensity aerobic exercise may enhance neuroplasticity of the contralesional hemisphere after stroke: a randomised controlled study

Upregulation of neuroplasticity might help maximize stroke recovery. One intervention that appears worthy of investigation is aerobic exercise. This study aimed to determine whether a single bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise can enhance neuroplasticity in people with stroke. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to a 20-min moderate intensity exercise intervention or remained sedentary (control). Transcranial magnetic stimulation measured corticospinal excitability of the contralesional ...

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Effect of Acute High-Intensity Interval Training on Immune Function and Oxidative Stress in Canoe/Kayak Athletes

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on immune function and oxidative stress in male canoe/kayak athletes who were well trained. A total of 22 participants were voluntarily recruited with an age range of 15.9 ± 2.3 years, height of 172.2 ± 5.5 cm, body mass of 63.30 ± 6.95 kg, and body fat of 13.77 ± 3.76%. The modified Wingate kayaking test on a kayak ergometer was performed by all participants. Blood samples ...

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Improved processing speed and decreased functional connectivity in individuals with chronic stroke after paired exercise and motor training

After stroke, impaired motor performance is linked to an increased demand for cognitive resources. Aerobic exercise improves cognitive function in neurologically intact populations and may be effective in altering cognitive function post-stroke. We sought to determine if high-intensity aerobic exercise paired with motor training in individuals with chronic stroke alters cognitive-motor function and functional connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a key region for cognitive-motor ...

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Physical exercise induces mental flow related to catecholamine levels in noncompetitive, but not competitive conditions in men

The study aimed to reveal physical exercise conditions and catecholamine response-dependent differences while an individual experiences a flow state (FS) following noncompetitive and competitive running drills. Urine laboratory catecholamine levels were measured using a standard clinical method during pre- and post-physical exercises. The noncompetitive task involved intermittent running drills, from an absolute beginning up through exhaustion. Initially, the drill is performed individually then ...

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Network of muscle fibers activation facilitates inter-muscular coordination, adapts to fatigue and reflects muscle function

Fundamental movement patterns require continuous skeletal muscle coordination, where muscle fibers with different timing of activation synchronize their dynamics across muscles with distinct functions. It is unknown how muscle fibers integrate as a network to generate and fine tune movements. We investigate how distinct muscle fiber types synchronize across arm and chest muscles, and respond to fatigue during maximal push-up exercise. We uncover that a complex inter-muscular network of muscle fiber ...

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Effectiveness of physical activity interventions on reducing perceived fatigue among adults with chronic conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Fatigue is barrier of physical activity participation in adults with chronic conditions. However, physical activity alleviates fatigue symptoms. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to (1) synthesise evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) exploring the effects of physical activity interventions on fatigue reduction and (2) evaluate their effectiveness. Medline/CINAHL/EMBASE/Web of Science and Scopus were searched up to June 24th, 2023. Two reviewers independently conducted study ...

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High-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on patient quality of life in cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on the quality of life (QOL) and mental health (MH) of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVDs). Web of Science, Medline, Embase, Cochrane (CENTRAL), CINAHL, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and China Science and Technology Journal databases were searched from their date of establishment to July, 2023. A total of 5798 ...

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CRISPRa system activates myokines FGF21 and FNDC5: Promoting fat browning and improving diet-induced obesity in mice

Obesity causes metabolic disorders and is one of the important risk factors for diabetes. Myokines are widely involved in lipid metabolism through autocrine, paracrine and endocrine actions. FGF21 and Irisin, as representative myokines, can promote the browning of adipocytes and are potential targets for the treatment of obesity. This commentary discusses the research by Zhu et al. published in Clinical and Translational Medicine. In this study, the expression of FGF21 and FNDC5 is simultaneously ...

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Myonectin protects against skeletal muscle dysfunction in male mice through activation of AMPK/PGC1α pathway

To maintain and restore skeletal muscle mass and function is essential for healthy aging. We have found that myonectin acts as a cardioprotective myokine. Here, we investigate the effect of myonectin on skeletal muscle atrophy in various male mouse models of muscle dysfunction. Disruption of myonectin exacerbates skeletal muscle atrophy in age-associated, sciatic denervation-induced or dexamethasone (DEX)-induced muscle atrophy models. Myonectin deficiency also contributes to exacerbated mitochondrial ...

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ATF3 induction prevents precocious activation of skeletal muscle stem cell by regulating H2B expression

Skeletal muscle stem cells (also called satellite cells, SCs) are important for maintaining muscle tissue homeostasis and damage-induced regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood how SCs enter cell cycle to become activated upon injury. Here we report that AP-1 family member ATF3 (Activating Transcription Factor 3) prevents SC premature activation. Atf3 is rapidly and transiently induced in SCs upon activation. Short-term deletion of Atf3 in SCs accelerates acute injury-induced regeneration, ...

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Anti-obesity effects of aerobic exercise along with Rosa canina seed extract supplementation in rats: The role of irisin and adipolin

Aerobic exercise and some bioactive compounds in medicinal plants have anti-obesity effects and can suppress body weight. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-obesity effects of 6 weeks of aerobic exercise (AE) and supplementation of the hydroalcoholic extract of Rosa canina fruit seed (RC) in obese male rats. In this experimental study, 24 high-fat diet (HFD) obese male Wistar rats were used. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups (6 rat in group), including 1. ...

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The effect of two concurrent exercise modalities on serum concentrations of FGF21, irisin, follistatin, and myostatin in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus

This study investigated the effect of concurrent training (CT) sequences on fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), irisin, myostatin (MSTN), and follistatin (FST) among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Fifty-one diabetic men were randomly selected and assigned to concurrent aerobic-resistance (A-R) training and concurrent resistance-aerobic (R-A) training, and non-exercise control (CON) groups. The training protocols consisted of three sessions per week for 12 weeks. The A-R and ...

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The Effect of Exercise Training on Irisin Secretion in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review

  Introduction: Irisin is a myokine considered to be a potential mediator of exercise-induced energy metabolism and its secretion is known to promote the browning of beige fat cells in white adipose tissue. However, it is currently not known which exercise protocol is the best to enhance irisin concentration in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Objective: The purpose of this study is to provide a review investigating the irisin response to different exercise training modalities and intensities ...

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Irisin, an exercise-induced bioactive peptide beneficial for health promotion during aging process

Irisin is an exercise-induced myokine expressed as a bioactive peptide in multiple tissues and organs, and exercise and cold exposure are the major inducers for its secretion. Irisin presents a decreasing trend with the extension of age and is also closely associated with a wide range of aging-related diseases. Currently, many studies on irisin are being conducted with respect to physiological functions for health promotion, and the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of chronic ...

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The crosstalk between BAT thermogenesis and skeletal muscle dysfunction

Metabolic defects increase the risk of skeletal muscle diseases, and muscle impairment might worsen metabolic disruption, leading to a vicious cycle. Both brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle play important roles in non-shivering thermogenesis to regulate energy homeostasis. BAT regulates body temperature, systemic metabolism, and seretion of batokines that have positive or negative impacts on skeletal muscle. Conversely, muscle can secrete myokines that regulate BAT function. This review ...

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Effects of CX3CR1 and CXCR2 antagonists on running-dependent intramuscular neutrophil recruitments and myokine upregulation

Muscle contractile activity stimulates intramuscular recruitment of immune cells including neutrophils emerging to serve as a prerequisite for exerting proper muscular performance, although the underlying mechanisms and their contributions to myokine upregulation remain ill-defined. We previously reported that pharmacological inhibition of CX3CR1, a fractalkine receptor, dampens gnawing-dependent neutrophil recruitment into masseter muscles along with compromising their masticatory activity. By using ...

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Apelin as a Potential Regulator of Peak Athletic Performance

Apelin, as a cardiokine/myokine, is emerging as an important regulator of cardiac and skeletal muscle homeostasis. Loss of apelin signaling results in premature cardiac aging and sarcopenia. However, the contribution of apelin to peak athletic performance remains largely elusive. In this paper, we assessed the impact of maximal cardiorespiratory exercise testing on the plasma apelin levels of 58 male professional soccer players. Circulating apelin-13 and apelin-36, on average, increased transiently ...

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All-trans Retinoic Acid and Beta-Carotene Increase Sclerostin Production in C2C12 Myotubes

Sclerostin is a protein secreted by osteocytes whose encoding gene SOST is regulated by mechanical stimuli, cytokines, and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and mediates antianabolic effects on bone formation as an inhibitor of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Interestingly, skeletal muscle has recently been identified as another source of sclerostin, suggesting that the musculature may play an important role in maintaining bone mass. However, regulators of muscular SOST expression are virtually ...

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Pharmacological and physiological roles of adipokines and myokines in metabolic-related dementia

Dementia is a detrimental neuropathologic condition with considerable physical, mental, social, and financial impact on patients and society. Patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), a group of diseases that occur in tandem and increase the risk of neurologic diseases, have a higher risk of dementia. The ratio between muscle and adipose tissue is crucial in MetS, as these contain many hormones, including myokines and adipokines, which are involved in crosstalk and local paracrine/autocrine interactions. ...

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Could exercise hormone irisin be a therapeutic agent against Parkinson’s and other neurodegenerative diseases?

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The pathologic hallmarks of the disease are the loss of dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra pars compacta and the presence of intraneuronal alpha synuclein (a-syn) aggregates. Clinical features of PD include motor symptoms such as bradykinesia, rigidity, tremors, postural instability, and gait impairment, and non-motor symptoms such as constipation, orthostatic hypotension, ...

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Exercise-activated hepatic autophagy via the FN1-α5β1 integrin pathway drives metabolic benefits of exercise

How exercise elicits systemic metabolic benefits in both muscles and non-contractile tissues is unclear. Autophagy is a stress-induced lysosomal degradation pathway that mediates protein and organelle turnover and metabolic adaptation. Exercise activates autophagy in not only contracting muscles but also non-contractile tissues including the liver. However, the role and mechanism of exercise-activated autophagy in non-contractile tissues remain mysterious. Here, we show that hepatic autophagy activation ...

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Interplay of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue: sarcopenic obesity

Sarcopenic obesity is becoming a global health concern, owing to the rising older population, causing cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality. Loss of muscle exceeding normal age-related changes has been revealed to be associated with obesity, aggravating each other through complex interactions. Physiological regeneration and proliferation of muscle tissue are achieved through harmonious processes of regulated inflammation, autophagy, muscle satellite cell proliferation, and signaling molecule function. ...

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Serum Levels of Myonectin Are Lower in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome and Are Negatively Correlated with Android Fat Mass

Myonectin has shown beneficial effects on lipid regulation in murine models; therefore, it may have implications in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome (MS). We evaluated the relationship between serum myonectin and serum lipids, global and regional fat mass, intramuscular lipid content, and insulin resistance (IR) in adults with metabolic risk factors. This was a cross-sectional study in sedentary adults who were diagnosed with MS or without MS (NMS). Serum myonectin was quantified by enzyme-linked ...

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Calorie Restriction Combined with High-Intensity Interval Training Promotes Browning of White Adipose Tissue by Activating the PPARγ/PGC-1α/UCP1 Pathway

Objective: This study was designed to survey the effect and the mechanism of action of calorie restriction combined with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the browning of white adipose tissue. Methods: For the human study population, obese adult males were randomly assigned to one of three major groups: the control group (CN group), the calorie restriction combined with HIIT group (CR+HIIT group) and the HIIT group. After 3 months of training, body composition was measured. For the rodent ...

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Effects of recreational SCUBA diving practiced once a week on neurohormonal response and myokines-mediated communication between muscles and the brain

Objective: During physical activity, activation of muscular, endocrine, and nervous systems, results in intensive crosstalk between muscles and other organs, which enables response to physiological stress. In SCUBA diving, extreme environmental conditions represent an additional challenge for homeostasis maintenance, but underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We aimed to contribute to the understanding of neurohormonal response and muscle-brain crosstalk by measuring the concentrations of the ...

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High-Intensity Interval Cycling and Running Yield a Similar Myokine and Osteokine Response in Young Adult Females

Background: The differential responses of the myokine irisin, in combination with changes in markers and regulators of bone remodeling to high-intensity interval exercise of high and low impact, were examined in 18 young adult females (22.5 ± 2.7 years). Methods: Participants performed two high-intensity interval exercise trials in random order: running on a treadmill and cycling on a cycle ergometer. Trials consisted of eight 1 min running or cycling intervals at ≥ 90% of maximal heart ...

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Neutral Effect of Skeletal Muscle Mineralocorticoid Receptor on Glucose Metabolism in Mice

The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is able to regulate the transcription of a number of genes in the myotube, although its roles in skeletal muscle (SM) metabolism still await demonstration. SM represents a major site for glucose uptake, and its metabolic derangements play a pivotal role in the development of insulin resistance (IR). The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of SM MR in mediating derangements of glucose metabolism in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We observed ...

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Sarcopenia and Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: Targeting the Muscle–Brain Axis

Declines in physical performance and cognition are commonly observed in older adults. The geroscience paradigm posits that a set of processes and pathways shared among age-associated conditions may also serve as a molecular explanation for the complex pathophysiology of physical frailty, sarcopenia, and cognitive decline. Mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, metabolic alterations, declines in cellular stemness, and altered intracellular signaling have been observed in muscle aging. Neurological ...

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Acute effect of moderate and high-intensity interval exercises on asprosin and BDNF levels in inactive normal weight and obese individuals

This study aimed to examine the acute effects of moderate-intensity aerobic and high-intensity interval exercise protocols on Asprosin and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels in inactive normal weight and obese individuals. A total of 20 male individuals aged 18–65 years, ten normal weight (NW) (Body Mass Index (BMI): 18.5–24.99 kg/m2) and 10 obese (Ob) (BMI: 24.99–35.00 kg/m2) participated in this study, voluntarily. Moderate aerobic exercise (AE) (main circuit 30 min, ...

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Arntl deficiency in myeloid cells reduces neutrophil recruitment and delays skeletal muscle repair

After a muscle injury, a process comprising inflammation, repair, and regeneration must occur in a time-sensitive manner for skeletal muscle to be adequately repaired and regenerated. This complex process is assumed to be controlled by various myeloid cell types, including monocytes and macrophages, though the mechanism is not fully understood. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (Arntl or Bmal1) is a transcription factor that controls the circadian rhythm and has been implicated ...

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Treadmill Exercise Alleviates Cognition Disorder by Activating the FNDC5: Dual Role of Integrin αV/β5 in Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease with cognitive impairment (PD-CI) results in several clinical outcomes for which specific treatment is lacking. Although the pathogenesis of PD-CI has not yet been fully elucidated, it is related to neuronal plasticity decline in the hippocampus region. The dopaminergic projections from the substantia nigra to the hippocampus are critical in regulating hippocampal plasticity. Recently, aerobic exercise has been recognized as an effective therapeutic strategy for enhancing ...

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Endothelial cell-derived stem cell factor promotes lipid accumulation through c-Kit-mediated increase of lipogenic enzymes in brown adipocytes

Active thermogenesis in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) facilitating the utilization of lipids and glucose is critical for maintaining body temperature and reducing metabolic diseases, whereas inactive BAT accumulates lipids in brown adipocytes (BAs), leading to BAT whitening. Although cellular crosstalk between endothelial cells (ECs) and adipocytes is essential for the transport and utilization of fatty acid in BAs, the angiocrine roles of ECs mediating this crosstalk remain poorly understood. Using ...

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Ligand dependent interaction between PC-TP and PPARδ mitigates diet-induced hepatic steatosis in male mice

Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP; synonym StarD2) is a soluble lipid-binding protein that transports phosphatidylcholine (PC) between cellular membranes. To better understand the protective metabolic effects associated with hepatic PC-TP, we generated a hepatocyte-specific PC-TP knockdown (L-Pctp−/−) in male mice, which gains less weight and accumulates less liver fat compared to wild-type mice when challenged with a high-fat diet. Hepatic deletion of PC-TP also reduced adipose ...

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Skeletal muscle overexpression of sAnk1.5 in transgenic mice does not predispose to type 2 diabetes

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and cis-expression quantitative trait locus (cis-eQTL) analyses indicated an association of the rs508419 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with type 2 diabetes (T2D). rs508419 is localized in the muscle-specific internal promoter (P2) of the ANK1 gene, which drives the expression of the sAnk1.5 isoform. Functional studies showed that the rs508419 C/C variant results in increased transcriptional activity of the P2 promoter, leading to higher levels of sAnk1.5 ...

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The Positive Effect of Four-Week Combined Aerobic–Resistance Training on Body Composition and Adipokine Levels in Obese Females

Obesity is a metabolic disease that is caused by a lack of physical activity and is associated with an increased risk of chronic inflammation. A total of 40 obese adolescent females with an average age of 21.93 ± 1.35 years and average body mass index (BMI) of 30.81 ± 3.54 kg/m2 were enrolled in this study, randomized, and divided into four groups, i.e., control (CTL; n = 10), moderate intensity aerobic training (MAT; n = 10), moderate intensity resistance training (MRT; n = 10), and ...

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The effect of electrical stimulation of skeletal muscle on cardioprotection and on muscle-derived myokine levels in rats: A pilot study

Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) is a widely used method in sports and rehabilitation therapies to simulate physical exercise. EMS treatment via skeletal muscle activity improves the cardiovascular functions and the overall physical condition of the patients. However, the cardioprotective effect of EMS has not been proven so far, therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential cardiac conditioning effect of EMS in an animal model. Low-frequency 35-min EMS was applied to the gastrocnemius ...

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Professional Athletes Maintain High TNF-Alpha or IFN-Gamma Related Inflammatory Status after Recovering from COVID-19 Infection without Developing a Neutralizing Antibody Response

Introduction: Professional athletes are endangered by COVID-19 and belong to the high-risk population due to their lifestyle. To obtain information on the behavior of COVID-19 in professional athletes, serological, cytokine, and virus neutralization capacities were analyzed. Materials and methods: Hungarian national teams participated in international sports events during the early phases of the COVID-19 epidemic in 2020. Altogether, 29 professional athletes volunteered to donate plasma. Their serological ...

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The anti-inflammatory effects of aerobic exercise training in patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a low-grade, chronic inflammatory disease, associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this systematic review/ meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training (AET) on inflammatory markers in T2DM patients. Methods: The literature search was conducted utilizing PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from their inception up to April 2022. We screened only for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) ...

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Prevalence and Effect of Low Skeletal Muscle Mass among Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Undergoing Systemic Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Low skeletal muscle mass (LSMM) is associated with poor outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. With the emergence of new systemic therapeutics, understanding the effect of LSMM on HCC treatment outcomes is critically important. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates the prevalence and effect of LSMM among HCC patients undergoing systemic therapy as reported in studies identified in searches of the PubMed and Embase databases published through 5 April 2023. The included ...

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Low Skeletal Muscle Mass and the Incidence of Delirium in Hospitalized Older Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

Background. Both low skeletal muscle mass and delirium are prevalent in older hospitalized patients, while their associations are unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to investigate the associations between low skeletal muscle mass and the incidence of delirium in hospitalized patients. Methods. The PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for relevant studies published before May 2022, and we conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis according to the PRISMA and ...

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Myoelectric activity during electromagnetic resistance alone and in combination with variable resistance or eccentric overload

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of electromagnetic resistance alone, as well as in combination with variable resistance or accentuated eccentric methods, with traditional dynamic constant external resistance exercise on myoelectric activity during elbow flexion. The study employed a within-participant randomized, cross-over design whereby 16 young, resistance-trained male and female volunteers performed elbow flexion exercise under each of the following conditions: using a dumbbell ...

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Neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps femoris, including the vastus intermedius, during isokinetic knee extensions

The purpose of this study was to compare the neuromuscular activation patterns of the individual muscles of the quadriceps femoris (QF), including the vastus intermedius (VI), during isokinetic concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) contractions. Thirteen healthy men performed maximum isokinetic CON and ECC knee extensions at angular velocities of 30, 90, and 120°/sec at knee joint angles from 80 to 180° (180° = full extension). The surface electromyographic (EMG) activities ...

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Platelet-derived chemokines promote skeletal muscle regeneration by guiding neutrophil recruitment to injured muscles

Skeletal muscle regeneration involves coordinated interactions between different cell types. Injection of platelet-rich plasma is circumstantially considered an aid to muscle repair but whether platelets promote regeneration beyond their role in hemostasis remains unexplored. Here, we find that signaling via platelet-released chemokines is an early event necessary for muscle repair in mice. Platelet depletion reduces the levels of the platelet-secreted neutrophil chemoattractants CXCL5 and CXCL7/PPBP. ...

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Intensity-dependent cardiopulmonary response during and after strength training

Whereas cardiopulmonary responses are well understood in endurance training, they are rarely described in strength training. This cross-over study examined acute cardiopulmonary responses in strength training. Fourteen healthy male strength training-experienced participants (age 24.5 ± 2.9 years; BMI 24.1 ± 2.0 kg/m2) were randomly assigned into three strength training sessions (three sets of ten repetitions) with different intensities (50%, 62,5%, and 75% ...

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Combined effects of exercise and different levels of acute hypoxic severity: A randomized crossover study on glucose regulation in adults with overweight

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of manipulating hypoxic severity with low-intensity exercise on glucose regulation in healthy overweight adults. Methods: In a randomized crossover design, 14 males with overweight (age: 27 ± 5 years; body mass index (BMI) 27.1 ± 1.8 kg⋅m2) completed three exercise trials involving 60 min aerobic exercise cycling at 90% lactate threshold in normoxia (NM, FiO2 = 20.9%), moderate hypoxia (MH, FiO2 = 16.5%) and high ...

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Sport-related differences in QT dispersion and echocardiographic parameters in male athletes

The aim of this study was to compare QT dispersion (QTd) and echocardiographic parameters in male athletes competing across different sports (long-distance running, volleyball, football, powerlifting, and bodybuilding) and a control population. Significant moderate-strong differences (p < 0.001, η2p = 0.52–0.71) were found in corrected QTd, intraventricular septal wall thickness (ISWT), posterior wall thickness (PWT), relative wall thickness (RWT) and LV (left ventricular) ...

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The effects of muscle mass and quality on mortality of patients with acute kidney injury requiring continuous renal replacement therapy

This study examined the effects of muscle mass on mortality in patients with acute kidney injury requiring continuous renal replacement therapy. It was conducted in eight medical centers between 2006 and 2021. The data of 2200 patients over the age of 18 years with acute kidney injury who required continuous renal replacement therapy were retrospectively collected. Skeletal muscle areas, categorized into normal and low attenuation muscle areas, were obtained from computed tomography images at the ...

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Association between characteristics of swallowing-related muscles and trunk muscle mass

Swallowing function is associated with systemic factors. Whether trunk or appendicular skeletal muscle mass is a better indicator of swallowing-related muscle characteristics in community-dwelling older adults is not clear. Hence, we investigated the association between the characteristics of swallowing-related muscles (e.g., mass and quality) and trunk muscle mass. Community-dwelling older adults aged ≥ 65 years (n = 141; men: n = 45, women: n = 96) ...

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Modified lumbo-pelvic exercise to alleviate mild stress urinary incontinence in middle-aged females

Urinary incontinence is one of the common clinical problems of females passing middle age. Traditional pelvic floor muscle training to alleviate urinary incontinence is too dull and unpleasant. Therefore, we were motivated to purpose a modified lumbo-pelvic exercise training incorporating simplified dancing components with pelvic floor muscle training. The objective of this study was to evaluate the 16-week modified lumbo-pelvic exercise program that incorporated dance and abdominal drawing-in maneuvers. ...

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The effect of acute exercise on circulating immune cells in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients

The role of exercise in cancer prevention and control is increasingly recognized, and based on preclinical studies, it is hypothesized that mobilization of leukocytes plays an important role in the anti-tumor effect. Thus, we examined how 10-min acute exercise modulates immune cells in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Blood samples were taken at rest, immediately after exercise and 30 min after exercise and phenotypic characterization of major leukocyte subsets was done using 9-color flow ...

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Associations of physical activity domains and muscle strength exercise with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a nation-wide cohort study

It is unclear if various types and domains of exercise have an identical effect on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Thus, this study aimed to investigate associations of different physical activity domains and muscle strength exercise with NAFLD using a nation-wide cohort database. Adults aged 20–79 years who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2014 and 2018 were analyzed. Hepatic steatosis index was used to identify NAFLD. Physical ...

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Acute exercise as a modifier of neocortical plasticity and aperiodic activity in the visual cortex

Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a form of neuroplasticity commonly implicated in mechanistic models of learning and memory. Acute exercise can boost LTP in the motor cortex, and is associated with a shift in excitation/inhibition (E:I) balance, but whether this extends to other regions such as the visual cortex is unknown. We investigated the effect of a preceding bout of exercise on LTP induction and the E:I balance in the visual cortex using electroencephalography (EEG). Young adults (N = 20, ...

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A multicenter feasibility study on implementing a brief mindful breathing exercise into regular university courses

Practicing mindfulness is associated with stress reduction and with positive effects in the context of learning and teaching. Although effects on student populations have been studied extensively, there are few studies implementing mindfulness exercises in university courses directly. For this reason, we aimed to investigate whether the use of a brief mindfulness exercise in regular university courses, guided by the lecturers, is feasible and has immediate effects on the students’ mental states. ...

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Effects of different doses of exercise and diet-induced weight loss on beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes (DOSE-EX): a randomized clinical trial

Diet-induced weight loss is associated with improved beta-cell function in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with remaining secretory capacity. It is unknown if adding exercise to diet-induced weight loss improves beta-cell function and if exercise volume is important for improving beta-cell function in this context. Here, we carried out a four-armed randomized trial with a total of 82 persons (35% females, mean age (s.d.) of 58.2 years (9.8)) with newly diagnosed T2D (<7 years). ...

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The effect of exercise on cerebral blood flow and executive function among young adults: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial

Studies have demonstrated that exercise benefits executive function. However, it remains unclear which type of exercise is optimal for preserving executive function among young adults and the cerebral blood flow (CBF) mechanisms that underlie exercise-induced cognitive benefits. Therefore, this study aims to compare the intervention effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on executive function and the CBF mechanism. This was a double-blinded, ...

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Determination of optimum intensity and duration of exercise based on the immune system response using a machine-learning model

One of the important concerns in the field of exercise immunology is determining the appropriate intensity and duration of exercise to prevent suppression of the immune system. Adopting a reliable approach to predict the number of white blood cells (WBCs) during exercise can help to identify the appropriate intensity and duration. Therefore, this study was designed to predict leukocyte levels during exercise with the application of a machine-learning model. We used a random forest (RF) model to predict ...

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Plasma-derived extracellular vesicles released after endurance exercise exert cardioprotective activity through the activation of antioxidant pathways

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) can cause various conditions, including an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels that can decrease nitric oxide (NO) availability and promote vasoconstriction, leading to arterial hypertension. Physical exercise (PE) has been found to be protective against CVD by helping to maintain redox homeostasis through a decrease in ROS levels, achieved by increased expression of antioxidant enzymes (AOEs) and modulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs). Extracellular vesicles ...

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Cellular Mechanisms Mediating Exercise-Induced Protection against Cardiotoxic Anthracycline Cancer Therapy

Anthracyclines such as doxorubicin are widely used chemotherapy drugs. A common side effect of anthracycline therapy is cardiotoxicity, which can compromise heart function and lead to dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Dexrazoxane and heart failure medications (i.e., beta blockers and drugs targeting the renin–angiotensin system) are prescribed for the primary prevention of cancer therapy-related cardiotoxicity and for the management of cardiac dysfunction and symptoms if they arise ...

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Exercise drives metabolic integration between muscle, adipose and liver metabolism and protects against aging-related diseases

Over the last few decades, metabolic disease rates have been on the rise, and this is partially due to older individuals (>65 years of age) making up a higher percentage of the general population. As a result, older age is recognized as a major factor in the global metabolic disorders epidemic (insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), fatty liver) and chronic disease conditions (Alzheimer's, cardiovascular disease, etc.). In addition, aging synergizes with obesity and chronic physical inactivity ...

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Pleiotropic and multi-systemic actions of physical exercise on PGC-1α signaling during the aging process

Physical training is a potent therapeutic approach for improving mitochondrial health through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) signaling pathways. However, comprehensive information regarding the physical training impact on PGC-1α in the different physiological systems with advancing age is not fully understood. This review sheds light on the frontier-of-knowledge data regarding the chronic effects of exercise on the PGC-1α signaling ...

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The Apelinergic System in Pregnancy

The apelinergic system is a highly conserved pleiotropic system. It comprises the apelin receptor apelin peptide jejunum (APJ) and its two peptide ligands, Elabela/Toddler (ELA) and apelin, which have different spatiotemporal localizations. This system has been implicated in the regulation of the adipoinsular axis, in cardiovascular and central nervous systems, in carcinogenesis, and in pregnancy in humans. During pregnancy, the apelinergic system is essential for embryo cardiogenesis and vasculogenesis ...

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Exercise protects aged mice against coronary endothelial senescence via FUNDC1-dependent mitophagy

Vascular aging contributes to adverse changes in organ function and is a significant indicator of major cardiac events. Endothelial cells (ECs) participate in aging-provoked coronary vascular pathology. Regular exercise is associated with preservation of arterial function with aging in humans. However, the molecular basis is not well understood. The present study was aimed to determine the effects of exercise on coronary endothelial senescence and whether mitochondrial clearance regulator FUN14 domain ...

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Exercise-Induced Fibroblast Growth Factor-21: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

This systematic review aimed to synthesize and quantify the results of the studies investigating the changes in fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) induced by exercise. We searched for studies that did not differentiate between patients and healthy adults but compared them before and after exercise and with and without exercise. For quality assessment, the risk-of-bias assessment tool for nonrandomized studies and the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool were used. A quantitative analysis was performed using ...

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What the Lactate Shuttle Means for Sports Nutrition

The discovery of the lactate shuttle (LS) mechanism may have two opposite perceptions, It may mean very little, because the body normally and inexorably uses the LS mechanism. On the contrary, one may support the viewpoint that understanding the LS mechanism offers immense opportunities for understanding nutrition and metabolism in general, as well as in a sports nutrition supplementation setting. In fact, regardless of the specific form of the carbohydrate (CHO) nutrient taken, the bodily CHO energy ...

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MYTHO is a novel regulator of skeletal muscle autophagy and integrity

Autophagy is a critical process in the regulation of muscle mass, function and integrity. The molecular mechanisms regulating autophagy are complex and still partly understood. Here, we identify and characterize a novel FoxO-dependent gene, d230025d16rik which we named Mytho (Macroautophagy and YouTH Optimizer), as a regulator of autophagy and skeletal muscle integrity in vivo. Mytho is significantly up-regulated in various mouse models of skeletal muscle atrophy. Short term depletion of MYTHO in ...

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Comparison of moderate-intensity continuous training and high-intensity interval training effects on the Ido1-KYN-Ahr axis in the heart tissue of rats with occlusion of the left anterior descending artery

Myocardial infarction (MI) affects many molecular pathways in heart cells, including the Ido1-KYN-Ahr axis. This pathway has recently been introduced as a valuable therapeutic target in infarction. We examined the effects of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the axis in the heart tissue of male Wistar rats with occluded left anterior descending (OLAD). Thirty rats (age 10–12 weeks, mean weight 275 ± 25 g) were divided ...

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Efficacy of resistance training in hypoxia on muscle hypertrophy and strength development: a systematic review with meta-analysis

A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effects of resistance training under hypoxic conditions (RTH) on muscle hypertrophy and strength development. Searches of PubMed-Medline, Web of Science, Sport Discus and the Cochrane Library were conducted comparing the effect of RTH versus normoxia (RTN) on muscle hypertrophy (cross sectional area (CSA), lean mass and muscle thickness) and strength development [1-repetition maximum (1RM)]. An overall meta-analysis and subanalyses ...

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The Influence of Exercise-Associated Small Extracellular Vesicles on Trophoblasts In Vitro

Exercise induces the release of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) into circulation that are postulated to mediate tissue cross-talk during exercise. We previously reported that pregnant individuals released greater levels of sEVs into circulation after exercise compared to matched non-pregnant controls, but their biological functions remain unknown. In this study, sEVs isolated from the plasma of healthy pregnant and non-pregnant participants after a single bout of moderate-intensity exercise were ...

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The effects of resistance exercise on cognitive function, amyloidogenesis, and neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease

With the increasing prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and difficulties in finding effective treatments, it is essential to discover alternative therapies through new approaches. In this regard, non-pharmacological therapies, such as physical exercise, have been proposed and explored for the treatment of AD. Recent studies have suggested that resistance exercise (RE) is an effective strategy for promoting benefits in memory and cognitive function, producing neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory ...

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Proteomic Analysis of Skeletal Muscle and White Adipose Tissue after Aerobic Exercise Training in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Mice

Obesity is associated with excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissue and other organs, such as skeletal muscle, whereas aerobic exercise (AE) plays an important role in managing obesity through profound protein regulation. Our study aimed to investigate the impact of AE on proteomic changes in both the skeletal muscle and the epididymal fat pad (EFP) of high-fat-diet-induced obese mice. Bioinformatic analyses were performed on differentially regulated proteins using gene ontology enrichment analysis ...

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The Role of Lubricin, Irisin and Exercise in the Prevention and Treatment of Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is a chronic degenerative musculoskeletal disease that worsens with age and is defined by pathological alterations in joint components. All clinical treatment recommendations for osteoarthritis promote exercise, although precise molecular pathways are unclear. The purpose of this study was to critically analyze the research on lubricin and irisin and how they relate to healthy and diseased joint tissue. Our research focused specifically on exercise strategies and offered new perspectives ...

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Irisin Ameliorates PM2.5-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Regulation of Autophagy Through AMPK/mTOR Pathway

Background: PM2.5 exposure is one of the major inducements of various respiratory diseases and related mortality. Meanwhile, irisin, a metabolism and thermogenesis-related hormone, is found to be protective against acute lung injury induced by LPS, which indicates its therapeutic function in lung injury. However, the function and underlying mechanism of irisin in PM2.5-induced acute lung injury (ALI) are still unclear. This study is aimed to discover the potential mechanisms of irisin in PM2.5-induced ...

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PCYT2-regulated lipid biosynthesis is critical to muscle health and ageing

Muscle degeneration is the most prevalent cause for frailty and dependency in inherited diseases and ageing. Elucidation of pathophysiological mechanisms, as well as effective treatments for muscle diseases, represents an important goal in improving human health. Here, we show that the lipid synthesis enzyme phosphatidylethanolamine cytidyltransferase (PCYT2/ECT) is critical to muscle health. Human deficiency in PCYT2 causes a severe disease with failure to thrive and progressive weakness. pcyt2-mutant ...

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Influence of altered serum and muscle concentrations of BDNF on electrophysiological properties of spinal motoneurons in wild-type and BDNF-knockout rats

The purpose of this study was to determine whether altered serum and/or muscle concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can modify the electrophysiological properties of spinal motoneurons (MNs). This study was conducted in wild-type and Bdnf heterozygous knockout rats (HET, SD-BDNF). Rats were divided into four groups: control, knockout, control trained, and knockout trained. The latter two groups underwent moderate-intensity endurance training to increase BDNF levels in serum ...

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Effects of plyometric vs. strength training on strength, sprint, and functional performance in soccer players: a randomized controlled trial

Plyometric training (PT) has been shown to have numerous benefits and few harmful effects. This study aimed to compare the effects of PT vs. strength training on muscle strength, sprint, and lower limb functional performance in soccer players. Ninety participants (mean age 22.5 years) were equally and randomly divided into three groups: a plyometric training group (PTG; n = 30), a strength training group (STG; n = 30), and a control group (CG; n = 30). In ...

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Novel Approach for Glycemic Management Incorporating Vibration Stimulation of Skeletal Muscle in Obesity

Because obesity is associated with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes (T2D), it is important to manage the blood glucose level at an early stage. Nevertheless, people with obesity have significantly lower resistance to muscle fatigue after exercise and exercise adherence. Therefore, we developed a novel “Relaxing-Vibration Training (RVT)” consisting of 25 postures using vibration stimulation of skeletal muscle and determined the feasibility of RVT for glycemic management. ...

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Effects of short bout small-sided game training on acid-based balance markers in youth male soccer players

This study aimed to compare the effects of 1 × 1 small-sided games (SSGs) with different bout durations on external (ETL) and internal training loads (ITL) in youth soccer players. Twenty U18 players were divided into two groups performing six 1 × 1 SSGs with 30 and 45 s bout durations on a playing field of 10 by 15 m. ITL indices, including the percentage of maximum heart rate (HR), blood lactate (BLa) level, pH, bicarbonate (HCO3−) level, and base excess ...

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Adipocyte YTH N(6)-methyladenosine RNA-binding protein 1 protects against obesity by promoting white adipose tissue beiging in male mice

Obesity, one of the most serious public health issues, is caused by the imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure. N(6)-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA modification has been recently identified as a key regulator of obesity, while the detailed mechanism is elusive. Here, we find that YTH RNA binding protein 1 (YTHDF1), an m6A reader, acts as an essential regulator of white adipose tissue metabolism. The expression of YTHDF1 decreases in adipose tissue of male mice fed a high-fat diet. Adipocyte-specific ...

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The Suppression Effects of Fat Mass and Obesity Associated Gene on the Hair Follicle-Derived Neural Crest Stem Cells Differentiating into Melanocyte by N6-Methyladenosine Modifying Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor

Background and Objectives: Melanocyte (MC), derived from neural crest stem cell (NCSC), are involved in the production of melanin. The mechanism by which NCSC differentiates to MC remains unclear. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification was applied to discuss the potential mechanism. Methods and Results: NCSCs were isolated from hair follicles of rats, and were obtained for differentiation. Cell viability, tyrosinase secretion and activity, and transcription factors were combined to evaluated the ...

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An integrative profiling of metabolome and transcriptome in the plasma and skeletal muscle following an exercise intervention in diet-induced obese mice

Exercise intervention at the early stage of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can aid in the maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis and prevent the development of macrovascular and microvascular complications. However, the exercise-regulated pathways that prevent the development of T2DM remain largely unclear. In this study, two forms of exercise intervention, treadmill training and voluntary wheel running, were conducted for high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. We observed that both forms of ...

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Cannabidiol improves muscular lipid profile by affecting the expression of fatty acid transporters and inhibiting de novo lipogenesis

Obesity is one of the principal public health concerns leading to disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism, which is a risk factor for several chronic diseases, including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, it turned out that cannabidiol (CBD) is a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of obesity and its complications. Therefore, in the present study, we used CBD therapy (intraperitoneal injections in a dose of 10 mg/kg of body mass ...

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A monocarboxylate transporter-dependent mechanism confers resistance to exercise-induced fatigue in a high-altitude hypoxic environment

The body is more prone to fatigue in a high-altitude hypoxic environment, in which fatigue occurs in both peripheral muscles and the central nervous system (CNS). The key factor determining the latter is the imbalance in brain energy metabolism. During strenuous exercise, lactate released from astrocytes is taken up by neurons via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) as a substrate for energy metabolism. The present study investigated the correlations among the adaptability to exercise-induced fatigue, ...

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One-minute sit-to-stand test as a quick functional test for people with COPD in general practice

Assessing changes in functional exercise capacity is highly relevant in the treatment of people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), as lung function is often static. In Denmark, most people with COPD are followed in general practice where traditional functional tests, like six-minute walk test, require too much time and space. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a quick functional exercise capacity test that can be performed in a limited setting, such as general practice. This study ...

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A systematic review of the clustering and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior among boys and girls

Identifying the clustering and correlates of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) is very important for developing appropriate lifestyle interventions for children and adolescents. This systematic review (Prospero CRD42018094826) aimed to identify PA and SB cluster patterns and their correlates among boys and girls (0–19 years). The search was carried out in five electronic databases. Cluster characteristics were extracted in accordance with authors’ descriptions by two ...

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The effect of different intensity physical activity on cardiovascular metabolic health in obese children and adolescents: An isotemporal substitution model

Objective: This study’s purpose was to investigate the effects of different intensities of physical activity on cardiovascular metabolism in obese children and adolescents based on an isochronous replacement model. Methods: A total of 196 obese children and adolescents (mean age, 13.44 ± 1.71 years) who met the inclusion criteria and attended a summer camp from July 2019 to August 2021 were recruited for this study, and all subjects wore a GT3X + triaxial motion accelerometer uniformly ...

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Effect of exercise training with laser phototherapy on homeostasis balance resistant to hypercoagulability in seniors with obesity: a randomized trial

The prevalence of obesity has increased the incidence of obesity-related coagulation disorders. The current study assessed the effectiveness of combined aerobic exercise and laser phototherapy on the coagulation profile and body measurements in older adults with obesity compared to aerobic exercise alone, which has not been adequately explored. We included 76 obese people (50% women and 50% men) with a mean age of 67.83 ± 4.84 years and a body mass index of 34.55 ± 2.67 ...

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Direct and indirect impact of low energy availability on sports performance

Low energy availability (LEA) occurs inadvertently and purposefully in many athletes across numerous sports; and well planned, supervised periods with moderate LEA can improve body composition and power to weight ratio possibly enhancing performance in some sports. LEA however has the potential to have negative effects on a multitude of physiological and psychological systems in female and male athletes. Systems such as the endocrine, cardiovascular, metabolism, reproductive, immune, mental perception, ...

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Sema7A protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity and hepatic steatosis by regulating adipo/lipogenesis

Objective: Obesity and related diseases are becoming a growing risk for public health around the world due to the westernized lifestyle. Sema7A, an axonal guidance molecule, has been known to play a role in neurite growth, bone formation, and immune regulation. Whether Sema7A participates in obesity and metabolic diseases is unknown. As several SNPs in SEMA7A and its receptors were found to correlate with BMI and metabolic parameters in the human population, we investigated the potential role of ...

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Adipose tissue aging is regulated by an altered immune system

Adipose tissue is a widely distributed organ that plays a critical role in age-related physiological dysfunctions as an important source of chronic sterile low-grade inflammation. Adipose tissue undergoes diverse changes during aging, including fat depot redistribution, brown and beige fat decrease, functional decline of adipose progenitor and stem cells, senescent cell accumulation, and immune cell dysregulation. Specifically, inflammaging is common in aged adipose tissue. Adipose tissue inflammaging ...

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An insight into brown/beige adipose tissue whitening, a metabolic complication of obesity with the multifactorial origin

Brown adipose tissue (BAT), a thermoregulatory organ known to promote energy expenditure, has been extensively studied as a potential avenue to combat obesity. Although BAT is the opposite of white adipose tissue (WAT) which is responsible for energy storage, BAT shares thermogenic capacity with beige adipose tissue that emerges from WAT depots. This is unsurprising as both BAT and beige adipose tissue display a huge difference from WAT in terms of their secretory profile and physiological role. ...

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Increased adipose tissue lymphatic vessel density inhibits thermogenesis through elevated neurotensin levels

During cold exposure, white adipose tissue can remodel to dissipate energy as heat under cold similar to thermogenic brown adipose tissue. This “browning” and the regulation of body temperature is under the control of neural and hormonal signaling. It was recently discovered that neurotensin, a small neuropeptide, not only acts to inhibit thermogenesis, but also that lymphatic vessels may be a surprisingly potent source of neurotensin production. We hypothesized that the induction of ...

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Lipidomic analysis of adipose-derived extracellular vesicles reveals specific EV lipid sorting informative of the obesity metabolic state

Adipose extracellular vesicles (AdEVs) transport lipids that could participate in the development of obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions. This study aims to define mouse AdEV lipid signature by a targeted LC-MS/MS approach in either healthy or obesity context. Distinct clustering of AdEV and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) lipidomes by principal component analysis reveals specific AdEV lipid sorting when compared with secreting VAT. Comprehensive analysis identifies enrichment of ceramides, sphingomyelins, ...

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Limiting Mrs2-dependent mitochondrial Mg2+ uptake induces metabolic programming in prolonged dietary stress

The most abundant cellular divalent cations, Mg2+ (mM) and Ca2+ (nM-μM), antagonistically regulate divergent metabolic pathways with several orders of magnitude affinity preference, but the physiological significance of this competition remains elusive. In mice consuming a Western diet, genetic ablation of the mitochondrial Mg2+ channel Mrs2 prevents weight gain, enhances mitochondrial activity, decreases fat accumulation in the liver, and causes prominent browning of white adipose. Mrs2 deficiency ...

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PEPITEM modulates leukocyte trafficking to reduce obesity-induced inflammation

Dysregulation of leukocyte trafficking, lipid metabolism, and other metabolic processes are the hallmarks that underpin and drive pathology in obesity. Current clinical management targets alternations in lifestyle choices (e.g. exercise, weight loss) to limit the impact of the disease. Crucially, re-gaining control over the pathogenic cellular and molecular processes may offer an alternative, complementary strategy for obese patients. Here we investigate the impact of the immunopeptide, PEPITEM, ...

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Eccentric muscle contractions: from single muscle fibre to whole muscle mechanics

Eccentric muscle loading encompasses several unique features compared to other types of contractions. These features include increased force, work, and performance at decreased oxygen consumption, reduced metabolic cost, improved energy efficiency, as well as decreased muscle activity. This review summarises explanatory approaches to long-standing questions in terms of muscular contraction dynamics and molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying eccentric muscle loading. Moreover, this article intends ...

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Aerobically trained older adults show impaired resting, but preserved exercise-induced circulating progenitor cell count, which was not improved by sprint interval training

Older adults exhibit a reduced number and function of CD34 + circulating progenitor cells (CPC), a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Exercise promotes the mobilisation of CPCs from bone marrow, so whether ageing per se or physical inactivity in older age reduces CPCs is unknown. Thus, this study examined the effect of age on resting and exercise-induced changes in CPCs in aerobically trained adults and the effect of 8 weeks of sprint interval training (SIT) on resting and ...

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The high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and curcumin supplementation can positively regulate the autophagy pathway in myocardial cells of STZ-induced diabetic rats

Objective: Targeting autophagy is a new therapeutic strategy for the complications of diabetes,such as diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). During diabetes, increased or insufficient autophagic activity causes aberrations in cellular homeostasis. Regarding the conflicting and unclear results regarding the effect of HIIT and curcumin supplementation on the expression of genes associated to autophagy, this study aimed to assess whether 4-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and curcumin supplementation ...

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Twelve Weeks Rest–Pause and Traditional Resistance Training: Effects on Myokines and Performance Adaptations among Recreationally Trained Men

A rest–pause (RP) technique involves performing one or more repetitions at high resistance to failure, followed by a short rest before performing one or more repetitions. These techniques can affect neuromuscular conditions and fatigue by changing the rest time between repetitions. This study compared the effect of 12 weeks of RP and traditional resistance training (TRT) on myokines (myostatin (MSTN), follistatin (FLST) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)) and functional adaptations. The ...

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Vitamin D Increases Irisin Serum Levels and the Expression of Its Precursor in Skeletal Muscle

Irisin is a myokine synthesized by skeletal muscle, which performs key actions on whole-body metabolism. Previous studies have hypothesized a relationship between irisin and vitamin D, but the pathway has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation affected irisin serum levels in a cohort of 19 postmenopausal women with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) treated with cholecalciferol for six months. In parallel, to understand the possible ...

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Myokines may target accelerated cognitive aging in people with spinal cord injury: A systematic and topical review

Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) can suffer accelerated cognitive aging, even when correcting for mood and concomitant traumatic brain injury. Studies in healthy older adults have shown that myokines (i.e. factors released from muscle tissue during exercise) may improve brain health and cognitive function. Myokines may target chronic neuroinflammation, which is considered part of the mechanism of cognitive decline both in healthy older adults and SCI. An empty systematic review, registered in ...

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High-intensity circuit training change serum myostatin but not myogenin in adolescents’ soccer players: a quasi-experimental study

Background: Skeletal muscle contractions due to exercise lead to the secretion of many proteins and proteoglycan peptides called myokines. Myostatin (MSTN) and Myogenin (MyoG) are two of the most important skeletal muscle growth regulatory factors related to myoblast differentiation and muscle hypertrophy. The present study aims at investigating the effects over eight weeks of high-intensity circuit training (HICT) on serum MyoG and MSTN in male soccer players. Method: The present study is a quasi-experimental ...

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Physical exercise mediates a cortical FMRP–mTOR pathway to improve resilience against chronic stress in adolescent mice

Aerobic exercise effectively relieves anxiety disorders via modulating neurogenesis and neural activity. The molecular mechanism of exercise-mediated anxiolysis, however, remains incomplete. On a chronic restrain stress (CRS) model in adolescent mice, we showed that 14-day treadmill exercise profoundly maintained normal neural activity and axonal myelination in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), in association with the prevention of anxiety-like behaviors. Further interrogation of molecular mechanisms ...

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Muscle PGC-1α modulates hepatic mitophagy regulation during aging

Aging has been suggested to be associated with changes in oxidative capacity, autophagy, and mitophagy in the liver, but a simultaneous evaluation of these key cellular processes is lacking. Moreover, skeletal muscle transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)-1α has been reported to mediate inter-organ signaling through myokines with regulatory effects in the liver, but the potential role of muscle PGC-1α on hepatic changes with age ...

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Time-dependent unloading effects on muscle and bone and involvement of FNDC5/irisin axis

The identification of biomarkers and countermeasures to prevent the adverse effects on the musculoskeletal system caused by the absence of mechanical loading is the main goal of space biomedical research studies. In this study, we analyzed over 4 weeks of unloading, the modulation in the expression of key proteins in Vastus lateralis, Gastrocnemius and cortical bone in parallel with the modulation of irisin serum levels and its precursor FNDC5 in skeletal muscle of hind limb unloaded (HU) mice. Here ...

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Irisin exhibits neuroprotection by preventing mitochondrial damage in Parkinson’s disease

Exercise has been proposed as an effective non-pharmacological management for Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. Irisin, a recently identified myokine, is increased by exercise and plays pivotal roles in energy metabolism. However, it remains unknown whether irisin has any protective effects on PD. Here, we found that serum irisin levels of PD patients were markedly elevated after 12-week regular exercise, which had a positive correlation with improved balance function scored by Berg Balance ...

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Metabolism and exercise: the skeletal muscle clock takes centre stage

Circadian rhythms that influence mammalian homeostasis and overall health have received increasing interest over the past two decades. The molecular clock, which is present in almost every cell, drives circadian rhythms while being a cornerstone of physiological outcomes. The skeletal muscle clock has emerged as a primary contributor to metabolic health, as the coordinated expression of the core clock factors BMAL1 and CLOCK with the muscle-specific transcription factor MYOD1 facilitates the circadian ...

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MME+ fibro-adipogenic progenitors are the dominant adipogenic population during fatty infiltration in human skeletal muscle

Fatty infiltration, the ectopic deposition of adipose tissue within skeletal muscle, is mediated via the adipogenic differentiation of fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs). We used single-nuclei and single-cell RNA sequencing to characterize FAP heterogeneity in patients with fatty infiltration. We identified an MME+ FAP subpopulation which, based on ex vivo characterization as well as transplantation experiments, exhibits high adipogenic potential. MME+ FAPs are characterized by low activity of WNT, ...

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Elevated Expression of ADAM10 in Skeletal Muscle of Patients with Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies Could Be Responsible for FNDC5/Irisin Unbalance

Dermatomyositis (DM) and immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) are two rare diseases belonging to the group of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). Muscle involvement in DM is characterized by perifascicular atrophy and poor myofiber necrosis, while IMNM is characterized by myofiber necrosis with scarce inflammatory infiltrates. Muscle biopsies and laboratory tests are helpful in diagnosis, but currently, few biomarkers of disease activity and progression are available. In this context, ...

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Exercising is good for the brain but exercising outside is potentially better

It is well known that exercise increases cognitive function. However, the environment in which the exercise is performed may be just as important as the exercise itself. Time spent in natural outdoor environments has been found to lead to increases in cognition similar to those resulting from acute exercise. Therefore, the benefits of both exercise and nature exposure suggest an additive impact on brain function when both factors are combined. This raises the question: what is the interaction between ...

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Supplementation with okra combined or not with exercise training is able to protect the heart of animals with metabolic syndrome

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clinical manifestation strongly associated with cardiovascular disease, the main cause of death worldwide. In view of this scenario, many therapeutic proposals have appeared in order to optimize the treatment of individuals with MetS, including the practice of exercise training (ET) and the consumption of okra (O). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of O consumption and/or ET in animals with MetS. In all, 32 male Zucker rats (fa/fa) at 10 weeks ...

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Protective effect of urotensin II receptor antagonist urantide and exercise training on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

Doxorubicin (DOX) has a wide antitumor spectrum, but its adverse cardiotoxicity may lead to heart failure. Urotensin II (UII) is the most potent vasoconstrictor in mammals. It plays a role by activating the UII receptor (UT), the orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPR14), collectively referred to as the UII/UT system. In the new version of "Chinese expert consensus on cardiac rehabilitation of chronic heart failure," it is pointed out that exercise rehabilitation is the cornerstone of cardiac rehabilitation. ...

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Exercise and chronic kidney disease: potential mechanisms underlying the physiological benefits

Increasing evidence indicates that exercise has beneficial effects on chronic inflammation, cardiorespiratory function, muscle and bone strength and metabolic markers in adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD), kidney failure or kidney transplants. However, the mechanisms that underlie these benefits have received little attention, and the available clinical evidence is mainly from small, short-duration (<12 weeks) exercise intervention studies. The available data, mainly from patients with CKD ...

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Does inflammation markers or treatment type moderate exercise intensity effects on changes in muscle strength in cancer survivors participating in a 6-month combined resistance- and endurance exercise program? Results from the Phys-Can trial

Background: Resistance exercise has a beneficial impact on physical function for patients receiving oncological treatment. However, there is an inter-individual variation in the response to exercise and the tolerability to high-intensity exercise. Identifying potential moderating factors, such as inflammation and treatment type, for changes in muscle strength is important to improve the effectiveness of exercise programs. Therefore, we aimed to investigate if inflammation and type of oncological ...

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Dose–response effects of exercise and caloric restriction on visceral adiposity in overweight and obese adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Objective: To determine and compare the dose–response effects of exercise and caloric restriction on visceral adipose tissue in overweight and obese adults, while controlling for the weekly energy deficit induced by the interventions. Methods: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and Web of Science were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing exercise or caloric restriction against eucaloric controls in overweight or obese adults. The primary outcome was the change in visceral fat measured by ...

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Intrafusal-fiber LRP4 for muscle spindle formation and maintenance in adult and aged animals

Proprioception is sensed by muscle spindles for precise locomotion and body posture. Unlike the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) for muscle contraction which has been well studied, mechanisms of spindle formation are not well understood. Here we show that sensory nerve terminals are disrupted by the mutation of Lrp4, a gene required for NMJ formation; inducible knockout of Lrp4 in adult mice impairs sensory synapses and movement coordination, suggesting that LRP4 is required for spindle formation and ...

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White matter lesion load determines exercise-induced dopaminergic plasticity and working memory gains in aging

Age-related dopamine reductions have been suggested to contribute to maladaptive working memory (WM) function in older ages. One promising intervention approach is to increase physical activity, as this has been associated with plasticity of the striatal dopamine system and WM improvements, however with individual differences in efficacy. The present work focused on the impact of individual differences in white-matter lesion burden upon dopamine D2-like receptor (DRD2) availability and WM changes ...

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Metabolome-wide association study on physical activity

The underlying mechanisms linking physical activity to better health are not fully understood. Here we examined the associations between physical activity and small circulatory molecules, the metabolome, to highlight relevant biological pathways. We examined plasma metabolites associated with self-reported physical activity among 2217 participants from the Airwave Health Monitoring Study. Metabolic profiling was conducted using the mass spectrometry-based Metabolon platform (LC/GC–MS), measuring ...

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Low thigh muscle strength in relation to myosteatosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

This study aimed to investigate the association of thigh muscle fat infiltration by quantitative MRI with muscle strength in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Seventy T2DM patients and sixty control subjects (71 males; age: 52 ± 8 years) underwent 3.0T MRI and isokinetic muscle strength measurements to obtain the skeletal muscle index (SMI), intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) proton density fat fraction (PDFF), intramuscular fat (IMF) PDFF, peak torque (PT) and ...

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Local IL-10 delivery modulates the immune response and enhances repair of volumetric muscle loss muscle injury

This study was designed to test the hypothesis that in addition to repairing the architectural and cellular cues via regenerative medicine, the delivery of immune cues (immunotherapy) may be needed to enhance regeneration following volumetric muscle loss (VML) injury. We identified IL-10 signaling as a promising immunotherapeutic target. To explore the impact of targeting IL-10 signaling, tibialis anterior (TA) VML injuries were created and then treated in rats using autologous minced muscle (MM). ...

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Annual changes in grip strength and skeletal muscle mass in chronic liver disease: observational study

Sarcopenia is a common complication in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD); however, the progression of sarcopenia over the course of CLD is unclear. The present study therefore determined the natural course of the progression of sarcopenia in patients with CLD and the effect of liver cirrhosis (LC) on this progression. This observational study analyzed patients with chronic hepatitis (CH) (n = 536) and LC (n = 320) who underwent evaluations of the grip strength ...

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Handgrip strength is inversely associated with augmentation index in patients with type 2 diabetes

Handgrip strength (HGS) is a measure of overall skeletal muscle strength and is used to identify risks for cardiovascular disease and mortality. Furthermore, HGS is an indicator of arterial stiffness that leads to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to examine the relationship between HGS and augmentation index (AIx) in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine patients with type 2 diabetes whose HGS and AIx were measured in our hospital. ...

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A FRET-based respirasome assembly screen identifies spleen tyrosine kinase as a target to improve muscle mitochondrial respiration and exercise performance in mice

Aerobic muscle activities predominantly depend on fuel energy supply by mitochondrial respiration, thus, mitochondrial activity enhancement may become a therapeutic intervention for muscle disturbances. The assembly of mitochondrial respiratory complexes into higher-order “supercomplex” structures has been proposed to be an efficient biological process for energy synthesis, although there is controversy in its physiological relevance. We here established Förster resonance energy ...

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Skeletal muscle myokine expression in critical illness, association with outcome and impact of therapeutic interventions

Context: Muscle expresses and secretes several myokines that bring about benefits in distant organs. Objective: We investigated impact of critical illness on muscular expression of irisin, kynurenine-aminotransferases and amylase; association with clinical outcome; and impact of interventions that attenuate muscle wasting/weakness. Design/Setting: We studied critically ill patients who participated in two RCTs (EPaNIC/NESCI) and documented time profiles in critically ill mice. Patients/other participants: ...

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PDGF-B secreted from skeletal muscle enhances myoblast proliferation and myotube maturation via activation of the PDGFR signaling cascade

Myokines, secreted factors from skeletal muscle, act locally on muscle cells or satellite cells, which is important in regulating muscle mass and function. Here, we found platelet-derived growth factor subunit B (PDGF-B) is constitutively secreted from muscle cells without muscle contraction. Furthermore, PDGF-B secretion increased with myoblast to myotube differentiation. To examine the role of PDGF-B as a paracrine or autocrine myokine, myoblasts or myotubes were treated with PDGF-B. As a result, ...

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Strength training for arterial hypertension treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the world and arterial hypertension (AH) accounts for 13.8% of deaths caused by cardiovascular diseases. Strength training interventions could be an important alternative tool for blood pressure control, however, consistent evidence and the most effective training protocol for this purpose are yet to be established. The current study used the Cochrane methodology to systematically review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated ...

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Testosterone is associated with abdominal body composition derived from computed tomography: a large cross sectional study

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between serum testosterone and abdominal body composition based on abdominopelvic computed tomography (APCT) measurements after adjusting for individual metabolic syndrome components. We performed a cross-sectional study using male subjects (age range: 22–84 years) who underwent a general health examination with abdominopelvic computed tomography and testosterone measurements. Body composition was evaluated with APCT. To confirm an ...

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Adipose tissue is a source of regenerative cells that augment the repair of skeletal muscle after injury

Fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) play a crucial role in skeletal muscle regeneration, as they generate a favorable niche that allows satellite cells to perform efficient muscle regeneration. After muscle injury, FAP content increases rapidly within the injured muscle, the origin of which has been attributed to their proliferation within the muscle itself. However, recent single-cell RNAseq approaches have revealed phenotype and functional heterogeneity in FAPs, raising the question of how this ...

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Senescence atlas reveals an aged-like inflamed niche that blunts muscle regeneration

Tissue regeneration requires coordination between resident stem cells and local niche cells1,2. Here we identify that senescent cells are integral components of the skeletal muscle regenerative niche that repress regeneration at all stages of life. The technical limitation of senescent-cell scarcity3 was overcome by combining single-cell transcriptomics and a senescent-cell enrichment sorting protocol. We identified and isolated different senescent cell types from damaged muscles of young and old ...

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MSCs-derived apoptotic extracellular vesicles promote muscle regeneration by inducing Pannexin 1 channel-dependent creatine release by myoblasts

Severe muscle injury is hard to heal and always results in a poor prognosis. Recent studies found that extracellular vesicle-based therapy has promising prospects for regeneration medicine, however, whether extracellular vesicles have therapeutic effects on severe muscle injury is still unknown. Herein, we extracted apoptotic extracellular vesicles derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs-ApoEVs) to treat cardiotoxin induced tibialis anterior (TA) injury and found that MSCs-ApoEVs promoted muscles ...

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Expression of LIM domain-binding 3 (LDB3), a striated muscle Z-band alternatively spliced PDZ-motif protein in the nervous system

LIM domain-binding 3 (LDB3) is a member of the Enigma family of PDZ–LIM proteins. LDB3 has been reported as a striated muscle-specific Z-band alternatively spliced protein that plays an important role in mechanosensory actin cytoskeleton remodeling. This study shows that LDB3 is broadly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system of human and mouse. LDB3 is predominantly expressed in the adult stages compared to early development and at a significantly higher level in the spinal ...

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Early-life exercise primes the murine neural epigenome to facilitate gene expression and hippocampal memory consolidation

Aerobic exercise is well known to promote neuroplasticity and hippocampal memory. In the developing brain, early-life exercise (ELE) can lead to persistent improvements in hippocampal function, yet molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not been fully explored. In this study, transgenic mice harboring the “NuTRAP” (Nuclear tagging and Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification) cassette in Emx1 expressing neurons (“Emx1-NuTRAP” mice) undergo ELE during adolescence. ...

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Disruption of mitochondrial dynamics triggers muscle inflammation through interorganellar contacts and mitochondrial DNA mislocation

Some forms of mitochondrial dysfunction induce sterile inflammation through mitochondrial DNA recognition by intracellular DNA sensors. However, the involvement of mitochondrial dynamics in mitigating such processes and their impact on muscle fitness remain unaddressed. Here we report that opposite mitochondrial morphologies induce distinct inflammatory signatures, caused by differential activation of DNA sensors TLR9 or cGAS. In the context of mitochondrial fragmentation, we demonstrate that mitochondria-endosome ...

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Angiotensin II type 1a receptor deficiency alleviates muscle atrophy after denervation

The study aim was to determine if suppressed activation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) prevents severe muscle atrophy after denervation. The sciatic nerves in right and left inferior limbs were cut in AT1a knockout homo (AT1a−/−) male mice and wild-type (AT1a+/+) male mice. Muscle weight and cross-sectional areas of type IIb muscle fibers in gastrocnemius muscle decreased at 7 and 21 days postdenervation in both AT1a−/− mice and AT1a+/+ mice, and the reduction ...

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Association Between Skeletal Muscle Mass and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Occupational Sedentary Population: A Cross-sectional Study

Objective: The aims of this study were to determine the association of skeletal muscle mass with three cardiovascular risk factors and explore a simple and clinically feasible indicator for identifying high-risk groups of cardiovascular diseases in occupational sedentary population. Methods: We recruited 7316 occupational sedentary participants older than 18 years from the Health Management Center of Tianjin Union Medical Center. Age-adjusted logistic regression was used to analyze the association ...

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The association of executive functions and physical fitness with cognitive-motor multitasking in a street crossing scenario

Age-related decline in cognitive-motor multitasking performance has been attributed to declines in executive functions and physical fitness (motor coordinative fitness and cardiovascular fitness). It has been suggested that those cognitive and physical resources strongly depend on lifestyle factors such as long-term regular physical activity and cognitive engagement. Although research suggests that there is covariation between components of executive functions and physical fitness, the interdependence ...

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Executive function during exercise is diminished by prolonged cognitive effort in men

The speed and accuracy of decision-making (i.e., executive function (EF) domains) is an integral factor in many sports. At rest, prolonged cognitive load (pCL) impairs reaction time (RT). In contrast, exercise improves RT and EF. We hypothesized that RT and EF during exercise would be diminished by prolonged ‘dual tasking’ as a consequence of pCL. To test the hypothesis, twenty healthy male participants performed four conditions [resting control (Rest), pCL only (pCLRest), exercise only ...

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A dual-mode neurostimulation approach to enhance athletic performance outcome in experienced taekwondo practitioners

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a growing empirical approach to improve athletic performance. Some recent studies have investigated the effects of transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) on the motor performance such as reaction time. TDCS and tsDCS can lead to alteration of the spontaneous neural activity, and the membrane potentials of motor neurons in cerebral cortex and spinal interneurons, respectively. Given the paucity of experimental studies on the non-invasive ...

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Isorhamnetin Reduces Glucose Level, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress in High-Fat Diet/Streptozotocin Diabetic Mice Model

Background: Isorhamnetin is a flavonoid that is found in medical plants. Several studies showed that isorhamnetin has anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity effects. This study aims to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of isorhamnetin in a high-fat diet and Streptozotocin-(HFD/STZ)-induced mice model of type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: Mice were fed with HFD followed by two consecutive low doses of STZ (40 mg/kg). HFD/STZ diabetic mice were treated orally with isorhamnetin (10 mg/kg) or (200 ...

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Tai chi-muscle power training for children with developmental coordination disorder: a randomized controlled trial

This study compared the effectiveness of tai chi (TC) muscle power training (MPT), TC alone, MPT alone, and no training for improving the limits of stability (LOS) and motor and leg muscular performance and decreasing falls in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). One hundred and twenty-one children with DCD were randomly assigned to the TC-MPT, TC, MPT, or control group. The three intervention groups received TC-MPT, TC, or MPT three times per week for 3 months. Measurements ...

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Shoulder stretching versus shoulder muscle strength training for the prevention of baseball-related arm injuries: a randomized, active-controlled, open-label, non-inferiority study

Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) and weakness in prone external rotation are risk factors for shoulder and elbow injuries in high school baseball pitchers. While a shoulder-stretching prevention program to improve GIRD decreases the injury rate, the effects of external rotation strength remain unclear. This non-inferiority (NI) study investigates the hypothesis that external rotation strength training is not inferior to sleeper stretching for shoulder and elbow injury prevention in high ...

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Effect of external isometric hip rotation force on lower extremity muscles activities during pelvic drop with different hip positions

Gluteus medius muscle (Gmed) dysfunction has been confirmed as a functional defect in subjects with Genu Valgum Deformity (GVD). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the change in the positions of hip rotation and applying isometric hip external rotation during pelvic drop (PD) can affect muscles activity in subjects with GVD. A total of thirty recreational female athletes with (n = 15) and without (n = 15) GVD participated in this study. Surface electromyography ...

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The effects of low-level laser therapy on muscle strength and functional outcomes in individuals with knee osteoarthritis: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial

The purpose of this study was to compare the therapeutic effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with 808 and 660 nm wavelength on muscle strength and functional outcomes in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). A total of 47 participants were randomly assigned to the 808 nm, 660 nm, and sham control groups. Two LLLT groups received continuous LLLT with a mean power of 300 mW in different wavelengths at the knee joint 15 min a session three days per week for eight weeks, ...

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ATPase Inhibitory Factor 1—A Novel Marker of Cellular Fitness and Exercise Capacity?

ATPase inhibitory factor 1 is a myokine inhibiting the hydrolytic activity of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase and ecto-F1-ATPase on the surface of many cells. IF1 affects ATP metabolism in mitochondria and the extracellular space and upregulates glucose uptake in myocytes; these processes are essential in physical activity. It is unknown whether the IF1 serum concentration is associated with exercise capacity. This study explored the association between resting IF1 serum concentration ...

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Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species (RONS) and Cytokines—Myokines Involved in Glucose Uptake and Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle

Insulin resistance onset in skeletal muscle is characterized by the impairment of insulin signaling, which reduces the internalization of glucose, known as glucose uptake, into the cell. Therefore, there is a deficit of intracellular glucose, which is the main source for energy production in the cell. This may compromise cellular viability and functions, leading to pathological dysfunction. Skeletal muscle fibers continuously generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). An excess of RONS ...

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Genome-wide analysis of a cellular exercise model based on electrical pulse stimulation

Skeletal muscle communicates with other organs via myokines, which are secreted by muscle during exercise and exert various effects. Despite much investigation of the exercise, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Here, we applied an in vitro exercise model in which cultured C2C12 myotubes were subjected to electrical pulse stimulation (EPS), which mimics contracting muscle. Based on the significantly up- and down-regulated genes in EPS, we constructed an in silico ...

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Energy metabolism and frailty: The potential role of exercise-induced myokines – A narrative review

Frailty is a complex condition that emerges from dysregulation in multiple physiological systems. Increasing evidence suggests the potential role of age-related energy dysregulation as a key driver of frailty. Exercise is considered the most efficacious intervention to prevent and even ameliorate frailty as it up-tunes and improves the function of several related systems. However, the mechanisms and molecules responsible for these intersystem benefits are not fully understood. The skeletal muscle ...

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Exercise and mitochondrial mechanisms in patients with sarcopenia

Sarcopenia is a severe loss of muscle mass and functional decline during aging that can lead to reduced quality of life, limited patient independence, and increased risk of falls. The causes of sarcopenia include inactivity, oxidant production, reduction of antioxidant defense, disruption of mitochondrial activity, disruption of mitophagy, and change in mitochondrial biogenesis. There is evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is an important cause of sarcopenia. Oxidative stress and reduction of ...

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The Potential of Exerkines in Women’s COVID-19: A New Idea for a Better and More Accurate Understanding of the Mechanisms behind Physical Exercise

The benefits of physical exercise are well-known, but there are still many questions regarding COVID-19. Chow et al.’s 2022 study, titled Exerkines and Disease, showed that a special focus on exerkines can help to better understand the underlying mechanisms of physical exercise and disease. Exerkines are a group of promising molecules that may underlie the beneficial effects of physical exercise in diseases. The idea of exerkines is to understand the effects of physical exercise on diseases ...

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Effects of aerobic exercise training in oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis markers on prefrontal cortex in obese mice

Background: To evaluate the effects of 8 weeks of Aerobic Physical Training (AET) on the mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative balance in the Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) of leptin deficiency-induced obese mice (ob/ob mice). Methods: Then, the mice were submitted to an 8-week protocol of aerobic physical training (AET) at moderate intensity (60% of the maximum running speed). In the oxidative stress, we analyzed Malonaldehyde (MDA) and Carbonyls, the enzymatic activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), ...

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Sclerostin as a biomarker of physical exercise in osteoporosis: A narrative review

Osteoporosis, a disease of low bone mass, is characterized by reduced bone mineral density (BMD) through abnormalities in the microarchitecture of bone tissue. It affects both the social and economic areas, therefore it has been considered a lifestyle disease for many years. Bone tissue is a dynamic structure exhibiting sensitivity to various stimuli, including mechanical ones, which are a regulator of tissue sclerostin levels. Sclerostin is a protein involved in bone remodeling, showing an anti-anabolic ...

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SIRT7 suppresses energy expenditure and thermogenesis by regulating brown adipose tissue functions in mice

Brown adipose tissue plays a central role in the regulation of the energy balance by expending energy to produce heat. NAD+-dependent deacylase sirtuins have widely been recognized as positive regulators of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. However, here we reveal that SIRT7, one of seven mammalian sirtuins, suppresses energy expenditure and thermogenesis by regulating brown adipose tissue functions. Whole-body and brown adipose tissue-specific Sirt7 knockout mice have higher body temperature and ...

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Superior cardiometabolic and cellular adaptive responses to multiple versus single daily sessions of high-intensity interval training in Wistar rats

This study aimed to compare in rats the cardiometabolic and cellular adaptative responses to 8 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) performed in a single (1xHIIT) or three shorter daily sessions (3xHIIT). Male Wistar rats were assigned to untrained (n = 10), 1xHIIT (n = 10), and 3xHIIT (n = 10) groups. Both HIIT groups performed 15 min of a treadmill run five times per week for 8 weeks. The 1xHIIT performed single daily sessions ...

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Meteorin-like is an injectable peptide that can enhance regeneration in aged muscle through immune-driven fibro/adipogenic progenitor signali

Pathologies associated with sarcopenia include decline in muscular strength, lean mass and regenerative capacity. Despite the substantial impact on quality of life, no pharmacological therapeutics are available to counteract the age-associated decline in functional capacity and/or, resilience. Evidence suggests immune-secreted cytokines can improve muscle regeneration, a strategy which we leverage in this study by rescuing the age-related deficiency in Meteorin-like through several in vivo add-back ...

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Muscle 4EBP1 activation modifies the structure and function of the neuromuscular junction in mice

Dysregulation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity drives neuromuscular junction (NMJ) structural instability during aging; however, downstream targets mediating this effect have not been elucidated. Here, we investigate the roles of two mTORC1 phosphorylation targets for mRNA translation, ribosome protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1), in regulating NMJ structural instability induced by aging and sustained mTORC1 activation. While myofiber-specific ...

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Developmental endothelial locus-1 attenuates palmitate-induced apoptosis in tenocytes through the AMPK/autophagy-mediated suppression of inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress

Aims: Myokine developmental endothelial locus-1 (DEL-1) has been documented to alleviate inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in various cell types. However, the effects of DEL-1 on inflammation, ER stress, and apoptosis in tenocytes remain unclear. Methods: Human primary tenocytes were cultured in palmitate (400 μM) and palmitate plus DEL-1 (0 to 2 μg/ml) conditions for 24 hours. The expression levels of ER stress markers and cleaved caspase 3, as well as phosphorylated 5' adenosine ...

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The impact of dietary protein supplementation on recovery from resistance exercise-induced muscle damage: A systematic review with meta-analysis

Background: It is unknown whether dietary protein consumption can attenuate resistance exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Managing EIMD may accelerate muscle recovery and allow frequent, high-quality exercise to promote muscle adaptations. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the impact of peri-exercise protein supplementation on resistance EIMD. Methods: A literature search was conducted on PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science up to March 2021 for relevant articles. PEDro criteria ...

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Maternal exercise upregulates the DNA methylation of Agtr1a to enhance vascular function in offspring of hypertensive rats

The angiotensin II signaling system regulates vascular dysfunction and is involved in the programming of hypertension. Maternal exercise has been linked to both short-term and long-term benefits for the mother and fetus. However, the impacts of maternal exercise on the intravascular renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in hypertensive offspring remain unexamined. This study examined whether maternal exercise has an epigenetic effect in repressing angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) expression, which ...

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Rhodiola pre-conditioning reduces exhaustive exercise-induced myocardial injury of insulin resistant mice

Myocardial injury reduction and recovery under acute cardiac stress are adversely impacted by insulin resistance (IR). We previously demonstrated that Rhodiola improved cardiac anti-stress capacity in mice. Thus, this study focuses on the preventive efficacy of Rhodiola on exhaustive exercise (EE)-induced myocardial injury of IR mice. An 8-week high-fat diet (HFD) model of IR mice was established. Rhodiola was administrated by garaging. After the 8-week intervention, half of the mice performed ...

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Impaired pulmonary and muscle function during moderate exercise in female patients recovered from SARS-CoV-2

This study aimed to assess pulmonary and muscle dysfunction by analyzing the slow component of oxygen uptake (VO2SC), and mechanical and ventilatory efficiency in adult women recovered from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type II (SARS-CoV-2) during a constant load test. 32 women (N = 17 patients with SARS-CoV-2; N = 15 control group) performed two cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPX) on a cycle ergometer. In the first test, the participants performed ...

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Association of wearable device-measured vigorous intermittent lifestyle physical activity with mortality

Wearable devices can capture unexplored movement patterns such as brief bursts of vigorous intermittent lifestyle physical activity (VILPA) that is embedded into everyday life, rather than being done as leisure time exercise. Here, we examined the association of VILPA with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality in 25,241 nonexercisers (mean age 61.8 years, 14,178 women/11,063 men) in the UK Biobank. Over an average follow-up of 6.9 years, during which 852 deaths ...

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Molecular mechanisms of exercise contributing to tissue regeneration

Physical activity has been known as an essential element to promote human health for centuries. Thus, exercise intervention is encouraged to battle against sedentary lifestyle. Recent rapid advances in molecular biotechnology have demonstrated that both endurance and resistance exercise training, two traditional types of exercise, trigger a series of physiological responses, unraveling the mechanisms of exercise regulating on the human body. Therefore, exercise has been expected as a candidate approach ...

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Exercise training-induced changes in exerkine concentrations may be relevant to the metabolic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Background: This study investigates the effects of exercise training on exerkines in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to determine the optimal exercise prescription. Methods: A systematic search for relevant studies was performed in 3 databases. Randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of exercise training on at least one of the following exerkines were included: adiponectin, apelin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, fetuin-A, fibroblast growth factor-21, follistatin, ghrelin, ...

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Exercise alters the circadian rhythm of REV-ERB-α and downregulates autophagy-related genes in peripheral and central tissues

he transcriptional repressor REV-ERB-α, encoded by Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1 Group D Member 1 (Nr1d1), has been considered to play an essential role in the skeletal muscle oxidative capacity adaptation and muscle mass control. Also, this molecule regulates autophagy via the repression of autophagy-related genes both in skeletal muscle and brain regions. Classically, training programs based on endurance or strength characteristics enhance skeletal muscle mass content and/or oxidative capacity, ...

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Osteoblast/osteocyte-derived interleukin-11 regulates osteogenesis and systemic adipogenesis

Exercise results in mechanical loading of the bone and stimulates energy expenditure in the adipose tissue. It is therefore likely that the bone secretes factors to communicate with adipose tissue in response to mechanical loading. Interleukin (IL)−11 is known to be expressed in the bone, it is upregulated by mechanical loading, enhances osteogenesis and suppresses adipogenesis. Here, we show that systemic IL-11 deletion (IL-11−/−) results in reduced bone mass, suppressed bone formation ...

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Modulation of PPARα-Thermogenesis-Gut Microbiota Interactions in Obese Mice Administrated with Zingerone

Background: The present study aimed to uncover the potential effects of zingerone (ZIN), one of the bioactive compounds in ginger, on the development of obesity as well as the mechanisms in C57BL/6J mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). Results: Supplementation with 0.2% (wt/wt) zingerone for 16 weeks significantly reduced the final body weight, liver weight and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) weight without changing their food intake when compared with HFD group. The hyperlipidemia ...

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Association of dietary and lifestyle inflammation scores with muscle strength and muscle endurance among Tehranian adults

Diet and lifestyle as modifiable factors play an effective role in muscle strength and muscle endurance. In addition, inflammatory reactions may have an association with the etiology of a a lower muscle strength and muscle endurance. We aimed to investigate the association of dietary and lifestyle inflammation scores (DLIS) with muscle strength and muscle endurance in a sample of Iranian adults. In this cross-sectional study, 270 adults aged 20 to 59 years (55.9% female) were selected. The dietary ...

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Effects of protein intake from an energy-restricted diet on the skeletal muscle composition of overweight and obese rats

Excess weight and obesity are often associated with ectopic adipose tissue accumulation in skeletal muscles. Intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) impairs muscle quality and reduces insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Although energy restriction and high protein intake can decrease IMAT, the effects and mechanisms of protein intake from an energy-restricted diet on protein and fat masses in skeletal muscle have received little attention. After establishing a diet-induced overweight and ...

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Mechanisms for Combined Hypoxic Conditioning and Divergent Exercise Modes to Regulate Inflammation, Body Composition, Appetite, and Blood Glucose Homeostasis in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Narrative Review

Obesity is a major global health issue and a primary risk factor for metabolic-related disorders. While physical inactivity is one of the main contributors to obesity, it is a modifiable risk factor with exercise training as an established non-pharmacological treatment to prevent the onset of metabolic-related disorders, including obesity. Exposure to hypoxia via normobaric hypoxia (simulated altitude via reduced inspired oxygen fraction), termed hypoxic conditioning, in combination with exercise ...

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GPSM1 impairs metabolic homeostasis by controlling a pro-inflammatory pathway in macrophages

G-protein-signaling modulator 1 (GPSM1) exhibits strong genetic association with Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Body Mass Index in population studies. However, how GPSM1 carries out such control and in which types of cells are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that myeloid GPSM1 promotes metabolic inflammation to accelerate T2D and obesity development. Mice with myeloid-specific GPSM1 ablation are protected against high fat diet-induced insulin resistance, glucose dysregulation, and liver steatosis ...

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Depletion of CD206+ M2-like macrophages induces fibro-adipogenic progenitors activation and muscle regeneration

Muscle regeneration requires the coordination of muscle stem cells, mesenchymal fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs), and macrophages. How macrophages regulate the paracrine secretion of FAPs during the recovery process remains elusive. Herein, we systemically investigated the communication between CD206+ M2-like macrophages and FAPs during the recovery process using a transgenic mouse model. Depletion of CD206+ M2-like macrophages or deletion of CD206+ M2-like macrophages-specific TGF-β1 gene ...

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Secreted EMC10 is upregulated in human obesity and its neutralizing antibody prevents diet-induced obesity in mice

Secreted isoform of endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex subunit 10 (scEMC10) is a poorly characterized secreted protein of largely unknown physiological function. Here we demonstrate that scEMC10 is upregulated in people with obesity and is positively associated with insulin resistance. Consistent with a causal role for scEMC10 in obesity, Emc10-/- mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity due to an increase in energy expenditure, while scEMC10 overexpression decreases energy expenditure, thus ...

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Vitamin D status modulates mitochondrial oxidative capacities in skeletal muscle: role in sarcopenia

Skeletal muscle mitochondrial function is the biggest component of whole-body energy output. Mitochondrial energy production during exercise is impaired in vitamin D-deficient subjects. In cultured myotubes, loss of vitamin D receptor (VDR) function decreases mitochondrial respiration rate and ATP production from oxidative phosphorylation. We aimed to examine the effects of vitamin D deficiency and supplementation on whole-body energy expenditure and muscle mitochondrial function in old rats, old ...

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Acute feeding with almonds compared to a carbohydrate-based snack improves appetite-regulating hormones with no effect on self-reported appetite sensations: a randomised controlled trial

Purpose: Early satiety has been identified as one of the mechanisms that may explain the beneficial effects of nuts for reducing obesity. This study compared postprandial changes in appetite-regulating hormones and self-reported appetite ratings after consuming almonds (AL, 15% of energy requirement) or an isocaloric carbohydrate-rich snack bar (SB). Methods: This is a sub-analysis of baseline assessments of a larger parallel-arm randomised controlled trial in overweight and obese (Body Mass Index ...

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Late isocaloric eating increases hunger, decreases energy expenditure, and modifies metabolic pathways in adults with overweight and obesity

Late eating has been linked to obesity risk. It is unclear whether this is caused by changes in hunger and appetite, energy expenditure, or both, and whether molecular pathways in adipose tissues are involved. Therefore, we conducted a randomized, controlled, crossover trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02298790) to determine the effects of late versus early eating while rigorously controlling for nutrient intake, physical activity, sleep, and light exposure. Late eating increased hunger (p < 0.0001) ...

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Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Deletion from Catecholaminergic Neurons Protects from Diet-Induced Obesity

High-calorie diets and chronic stress are major contributors to the development of obesity and metabolic disorders. These two risk factors regulate the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The present study showed a key role of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1) in dopamine β-hydroxylase (dbh)-expressing cells in the regulation of SNS activity. In a diet-induced obesity model, CB1 deletion from these cells protected mice from diet-induced weight gain by increasing sympathetic ...

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Hepatic Acat2 overexpression promotes systemic cholesterol metabolism and adipose lipid metabolism in mice

Aims/hypothesis: Acetyl coenzyme A acetyltransferase (ACAT), also known as acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, catalyses the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and forms part of the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway. Thus, ACAT plays a central role in cholesterol metabolism in a variety of cells. Here, we aimed to assess the effect of hepatic Acat2 overexpression on cholesterol metabolism and systemic energy metabolism. Methods: We generated liver-targeted adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9) to achieve ...

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PPARγ Acetylation Orchestrates Adipose Plasticity and Metabolic Rhythms

Systemic glucose metabolism and insulin activity oscillate in response to diurnal rhythms and nutrient availability with the necessary involvement of adipose tissue to maintain metabolic homeostasis. However, the adipose-intrinsic regulatory mechanism remains elusive. Here, the dynamics of PPARγ acetylation in adipose tissue are shown to orchestrate metabolic oscillation in daily rhythms. Acetylation of PPARγ displays a diurnal rhythm in young healthy mice, with the peak at zeitgeber ...

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Activin receptor ALK4 promotes adipose tissue hyperplasia by suppressing differentiation of adipocyte precursors

Adipocyte hyperplasia and hypertrophy are the two main processes contributing to adipose tissue expansion, yet the mechanisms that regulate and balance their involvement in obesity are incompletely understood. Activin B/GDF-3 receptor ALK7 is expressed in mature adipocytes, and promotes adipocyte hypertrophy upon nutrient overload by suppressing adrenergic signaling and lipolysis. In contrast, the role of ALK4, the canonical pan-activin receptor, in adipose tissue is unknown. Here we report that, ...

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Brown adipocytes local response to thyroid hormone is required for adaptive thermogenesis in adult male mice

Thyroid hormone (T3) and its nuclear receptors (TR) are important regulators of energy expenditure and adaptive thermogenesis, notably through their action in the brown adipose tissue (BAT). However, T3 acts in many other peripheral and central tissues which are also involved in energy expenditure. The general picture of how T3 regulates BAT thermogenesis is currently not fully established, notably due to the absence of extensive omics analyses and the lack of specific mice model. Here, we first ...

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Long-term effects on weight loss and maintenance by intensive start with diet and exercise

This 36-month study aimed to determine whether exercise intervention added to weight loss treatment in the beginning or at 6 months is effective for weight loss and long-term weight maintenance. A total of 120 obese adults (body mass index >30) were randomly assigned to intensified behavioral modification (iBM), iBM+ additional exercise from 0 to 3 months (CWT1), iBM+ additional exercise from 6 to 9 months (CWT2), and a control group (CON). Questionnaires and measurements were collected ...

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IGF1R is a mediator of sex-specific metabolism in mice: Effects of age and high-fat diet

Objective: We aimed to investigate the short and long-term metabolic consequences of IGF1R systemic gene deficiency in mice. Methods: UBC-CreERT2, Igf1rfl/fl mutant mice were used to suppress IGF1R signaling in adult tissues by inducing postnatal generalized Igf1r deletion with tamoxifen. Animals were analyzed at two different ages: i) 13-weeks old young mice, and ii) 12-months old middle-aged mice. In addition, the effects of 10 weeks-long high-fat diet (HFD) were investigated in middle-aged mice. Results: ...

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A systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrating Klotho as an emerging exerkine

Klotho is an anti-aging protein with several therapeutic roles in the pathophysiology of different organs, such as the skeletal muscle and kidneys. Available evidence suggests that exercise increases Klotho levels, regardless of the condition or intervention, shedding some light on this anti-aging protein as an emergent and promising exerkine. Development of a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to verify the role of different exercise training protocols on the levels of circulating soluble ...

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High-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training ameliorate the deteriorating acute effect of noise stress on corticosterone and testosterone in rats

Purpose: Noise has become an integral part of human life. Noise stress affect various physiological indices. In the present study, the effects of acute noise stress on corticosterone and testosterone and testosterone to cortisol ratio (T/C) in male rats, trained with two types of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MCT) were evaluated. Methods: 42 male Wistar rats were divided randomly into seven groups, including the control group (C), control time ...

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Inhibition of Rho/ROCK signaling pathway participates in the cardiac protection of exercise training in spontaneously hypertensive rats

Exercise training (ExT) is capable of improving the heart function of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. This study was aimed to investigate whether inhibition of RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway contributes to the cardiac protection by low-intensity ExT in SHRs. The results demonstrated that, compared with Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, SHRs obviously exhibited higher blood pressure, increased heart weight index and thickness of left ventricular ...

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Exercise serum regulates uric acid transporters in normal rat kidney cells

Hyperuricemia (HUA) refers to a physiological condition of high serum uric acid (SUA) level in the body, which may cause an increased risk of several chronic diseases. The kidney’s impaired uric acid (UA) metabolism is an important reason for HUA. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that circulating factors produced during exercise regulate the expression of ABCC4, ABCG2, URAT1, and GLUT9 in normal rat kidneys and normal rat kidney cells (NRK-52E) and their relationship with NF-κB ...

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Single-cell sequencing deconvolutes cellular responses to exercise in human skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise have been associated with a range of health-related benefits, but cell type-specific adaptations within the muscle are incompletely understood. Here we use single-cell sequencing to determine the effects of exercise on cellular composition and cell type-specific processes in human skeletal muscle before and after intense exercise. Fifteen clusters originating from six different cell populations were identified. Most cell populations remained quantitatively ...

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Changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue microRNA expression in response to exercise training in obese African women

The mechanisms that underlie exercise-induced adaptations in adipose tissue have not been elucidated, yet, accumulating studies suggest an important role for microRNAs (miRNAs). This study aimed to investigate miRNA expression in gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue (GSAT) in response to a 12-week exercise intervention in South African women with obesity, and to assess depot-specific differences in miRNA expression in GSAT and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT). In addition, the association ...

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Timing of physical activity in relation to liver fat content and insulin resistance

Aims/hypothesis: We hypothesised that the insulin-sensitising effect of physical activity depends on the timing of the activity. Here, we examined cross-sectional associations of breaks in sedentary time and timing of physical activity with liver fat content and insulin resistance in a Dutch cohort. Methods: In 775 participants of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study, we assessed sedentary time, breaks in sedentary time and different intensities of physical activity using activity ...

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Comparison between low, moderate, and high intensity aerobic training with equalized loads on biomarkers and performance in rats

This study investigated the physiological and molecular responses of Wistar Hannover rats, submitted to three 5-week chronic training models, with similar training loads. Twenty-four Wistar Hanover rats were randomly divided into four groups: control (n = 6), low-intensity training (Z1; n = 6), moderate-intensity training (Z2; n = 6) and high-intensity training (Z3; n = 6). The three exercise groups performed a 5-week running training three ...

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Blood flow restriction accelerates aerobic training-induced adaptation of VO2 kinetics at the onset of moderate-intensity exercise

It is unclear whether blood flow restriction (BFR) accelerates the adaptation of the time constant (τ) of phase II oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics in the moderate-intensity exercise domain via moderate-intensity aerobic training. Therefore, healthy participants underwent moderate-intensity [45–60% V˙O2 Reserve] aerobic cycle training with or without BFR (BFR group, n = 9; CON group, n = 9) for 8 weeks to evaluate VO2 kinetics during moderate-intensity cycle exercise ...

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Changes Induced by Aging and Long-Term Exercise and/or DHA Supplementation in Muscle of Obese Female Mice

Obesity and aging promote chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of long-term physical exercise and/or omega-3 fatty acid Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on genes or proteins related to muscle metabolism, inflammation, muscle damage/regeneration and myokine expression in aged and obese mice. Two-month-old C57BL/6J female mice received a control or a high-fat diet for 4 months. Then, the diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were distributed into ...

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A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Different Training Modalities on the Inflammatory Response in Adolescents with Obesity

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different training modalities on improving the inflammatory response in adolescents with obesity. For the study methodology, the databases such as China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, Pubmed, Web of Science, and EBSCO were selected for searching. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias (ROB) tool, and statistical analysis was performed by applying RevMan 5.4.1 analysis ...

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Exercise preconditioning improves electrocardiographic signs of myocardial ischemic/hypoxic injury and malignant arrhythmias occurring after exhaustive exercise in rats

Exercise preconditioning (EP) has a good myocardial protective effect. This study explored whether EP improves electrocardiographic (ECG) signs of myocardial ischemic/hypoxic injury and the occurrence of malignant arrhythmia after exhaustive exercise. A total of 120 male SD rats were randomly divided into the control group (group C), early exercise preconditioning group (group EEP), late exercise preconditioning group (group LEP), exhaustive exercise group (group EE), early exercise preconditioning + exhaustive ...

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METTL14 is required for exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy and protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury

RNA m6A modification is the most widely distributed RNA methylation and is closely related to various pathophysiological processes. Although the benefit of regular exercise on the heart has been well recognized, the role of RNA m6A in exercise training and exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy remains largely unknown. Here, we show that endurance exercise training leads to reduced cardiac mRNA m6A levels. METTL14 is downregulated by exercise, both at the level of RNA m6A and at the protein ...

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A systematic review and meta-analysis on effects of aerobic exercise in people with Parkinson’s disease

Previous studies have shown that aerobic exercise is an effective way to improve symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The aim of this study [PROSPERO CRD42022340730] was to explore the effects of aerobic exercises on balance, gait, motor function, and quality of life in PD patients. Searches were performed in PubMed, Web of Science, and EBSCO electronic databases. The Cochrane risk assessment tool was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included literature. From 1287 search ...

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CCRT and aerobic exercise: a randomised controlled study of processing speed, cognitive flexibility, and serum BDNF expression in schizophrenia

omputerised cognitive remediation therapy (CCRT) and aerobic exercise are often used to rehabilitate social functioning in patients with schizophrenia. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the effects of CCRT combined with aerobic exercise on cognitive function and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in patients with schizophrenia and cognitive impairment. Ninety-six patients with schizophrenia and cognitive impairment were included in this study and randomly divided into control, ...

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A randomized controlled trial of Baduanjin exercise to reduce the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients with prediabetes

To investigate the effectiveness of long-term Baduanjin and aerobic training on the 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in prediabetic patients. This study was single-blind randomized controlled trial. A total of 98 participants with prediabetes were randomly divided into three groups: the BDJ (n = 34), AT (n = 32), and control (n = 32) groups. Participants in the BDJ and AT groups underwent one year of supervised group exercise, consisting ...

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Clinical associations and prognostic implications of 6-minute walk test in rheumatoid arthritis

The clinical associations and prognostic implications of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is yet to be explored. To identify the clinical features and prognostic implications associated with the 6MWT in patients with RA. Cohort study including 387 RA patients who underwent 6MWT. Regression models (linear and logistic) were built to identify independent predictors of shorter 6MWT distance. Cox proportional models were used to study the association of ...

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Relative leg press strength relates to activity energy expenditure in older women: Implications for exercise prescription

Limited work has evaluated how leg press strength (LPS), relative to body mass (i.e., rLPS), affects heart rate (HR) responses during activities of daily living. Such information would prove useful by informing a specific level of rLPS needed to promote independent mobility and physical activity. Secondary analyses were performed on baseline measures of 76 untrained older (65 ± 4 y) women. After familiarization, one-repetition maximum leg press was converted to rLPS by dividing the external ...

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Metabokines in the regulation of systemic energy metabolism

Metabolism consists of life-sustaining chemical reactions involving metabolites. Historically, metabolites were defined as the intermediates or end products of metabolism and considered to be passive participants changed by metabolic processes. However, recent research has redefined how we view metabolism. There is emerging evidence of metabolites which function to mediate cellular signalling and interorgan crosstalk, regulating local metabolism and systemic physiology. These bioactive metabolite ...

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Single-cell dissection of the obesity-exercise axis in adipose-muscle tissues implies a critical role for mesenchymal stem cells

Exercise training is critical for the prevention and treatment of obesity, but its underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood given the challenge of profiling heterogeneous effects across multiple tissues and cell types. Here, we address this challenge and opposing effects of exercise and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity at single-cell resolution in subcutaneous and visceral white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in mice with diet and exercise training interventions. We identify a ...

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COX7A2L genetic variants determine cardiorespiratory fitness in mice and human

Mitochondrial respiratory complexes form superassembled structures called supercomplexes. COX7A2L is a supercomplex-specific assembly factor in mammals, although its implication for supercomplex formation and cellular metabolism remains controversial. Here we identify a role for COX7A2L for mitochondrial supercomplex formation in humans. By using human cis-expression quantitative trait loci data, we highlight genetic variants in the COX7A2L gene that affect its skeletal muscle expression specifically. ...

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Anti-obesity effects of the dual-active adenosine A2A/A3 receptor-ligand LJ-4378

Background and objectives: A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR)-mediated signaling in adipose tissues has been investigated as a potential target for obesity-related metabolic diseases. LJ-4378 has been developed as a dual-acting ligand with A2AAR agonist and A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) antagonist activity. The current study aimed to investigate the anti-obesity effects of LJ-4378 and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods: Immortalized brown adipocytes were used for in vitro analysis. A high-fat ...

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Obesity- and sex-related metabolism of arginine and nitric oxide in adults

Background: There is growing interest in the supplementation of arginine (Arg) and citrulline (Cit) in obesity due to their potential anti-obesogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, there is no consensus on the metabolic changes in Arg kinetics in obesity. Objectives: This exploratory cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between obesity, sex, and sex-by-obesity interaction on whole-body Arg kinetics in a large group of human subjects. Methods: We studied 83 nonobese ...

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Effects of a catechins-enriched diet associated with moderate physical exercise in the prevention of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats

Hypertension represents the main risk factor for the onset of cardiovascular diseases. Pharmacological treatments to control hypertension have been associated with new treatments involving physical activity and/or the intake of natural components (nutraceuticals). We here report the effects produced by a combination of a natural component (catechins) and a moderate exercise program on the development of hypertension in spontaneous hypertensive rats compared with those of each individual treatment. ...

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The neutral amino acid transporter SLC7A10 in adipose tissue, obesity and insulin resistance

Obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes represent major global health challenges, and a better mechanistic understanding of the altered metabolism in these conditions may give improved treatment strategies. SLC7A10, a member of the SLC7 subfamily of solute carriers, also named ASC-1 (alanine, serine, cysteine transporter-1), has recently been implicated as an important modulator of core processes in energy- and lipid metabolism, through its particularly high expression in adipocytes. In human ...

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Tregs in visceral adipose tissue up-regulate circadian-clock expression to promote fitness and enforce a diurnal rhythm of lipolysis

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) in nonlymphoid organs provide critical brakes on inflammation and regulate tissue homeostasis. Although so-called “tissue Tregs” are phenotypically and functionally diverse, serving to optimize their performance and survival, up-regulation of pathways related to circadian rhythms is a feature they share. Yet the diurnal regulation of Tregs and its consequences are controversial and poorly understood. Here, we profiled diurnal variations in visceral adipose tissue ...

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TonEBP in Myeloid Cells Promotes Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance and Inflammation Through Adipose Tissue Remodeling

The phenotypic and functional plasticity of adipose tissue macrophages during obesity play a crucial role in orchestration of adipose and systemic inflammation. Tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein (TonEBP, also called NFAT5) is a stress protein that mediates cellular responses to a range of metabolic insults. Here, we show that myeloid cell-specific TonEBP depletion reduced inflammation and insulin resistance in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity, but did not affect adiposity. This ...

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Cumulative muscle mass and blood pressure but not fat mass drives arterial stiffness and carotid intima-media thickness progression in the young population and is unrelated to vascular organ damage

We examined the longitudinal associations of fat mass, lean mass, and blood pressure (BP) from childhood through young adulthood with changes in carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). We included 3863 participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort. Fat mass and lean mass, measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and BP were measured at ages 9, 17 and 24 years and classified into ...

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Time-restricted eating and exercise training improve HbA1c and body composition in women with overweight/obesity: A randomized controlled trial

Diet modification and exercise training are primary lifestyle strategies for obesity management, but poor adherence rates limit their effectiveness. Time-restricted eating (TRE) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improve cardiometabolic health in at-risk individuals, but whether these two interventions combined induce superior improvements in glycemic control than each individual intervention is not known. In this four-armed randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04019860), we ...

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SIRT3 deficiency decreases oxidative metabolism capacity but increases lifespan in male mice under caloric restriction

Mitochondrial NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase Sirtuin3 (SIRT3) has been proposed to mediate calorie restriction (CR)-dependent metabolic regulation and lifespan extension. Here, we investigated the role of SIRT3 in CR-mediated longevity, mitochondrial function, and aerobic fitness. We report that SIRT3 is required for whole-body aerobic capacity but is dispensable for CR-dependent lifespan extension. Under CR, loss of SIRT3 (Sirt3−/−) yielded a longer overall and maximum lifespan as ...

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11β-HSD1 contributes to age-related metabolic decline in male mice

The aged phenotype shares several metabolic similarities with that of circulatory glucocorticoid excess (Cushing’s syndrome), including type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and myopathy. We hypothesise that local tissue generation of glucocorticoids by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), which converts 11-dehydrocorticosterone to active corticosterone in rodents (corticosterone to cortisol in man), plays a role in driving age-related chronic disease. In this study, ...

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Effects of low and high intensity interval training exercises on VO2max and components of neuromuscular and vascular system in male volunteers

Objectives: To evaluate the effects of different intensity exercises on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max and levels of components, namely brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrKB), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC-1α), and irisin. Methods: Thirty-six male participants were divided into control (CNT), low-intensity (LIIT), and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) groups. LIIT and ...

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Expansion of the Inguinal Adipose Tissue Depot Correlates With Systemic Insulin Resistance in C57BL/6J Mice

To accommodate surplus energy, the adipose tissue expands by increasing adipocyte size (hypertrophy) and number (hyperplasia). The presence of hypertrophic adipocytes is a key characteristic of adipose tissue dysfunction. High-fat diet (HFD) fed C57BL/6J mice are a commonly used model to study obesity and obesity-related complications. In the present study, we have characterized adipose plasticity, at both the cellular and tissue level, by examining the temporal development of systemic insulin resistance ...

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Adipose extracellular matrix deposition is an indicator of obesity and metabolic disorders

Obesity and metabolic disorders are threats to human health. Extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important member of adipose microenvironment. ECM remodeling contributes to obesity and insulin resistance, but the roles of every single ECM component is still not fully understood. We observed glucose and lipids metabolic disorders in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and humans with obesity. Higher levels of inflammatory factors and hormones existed in serum of HFD-fed mice. Multiple collagens, laminins, fibronectin, ...

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Association of step counts over time with the risk of chronic disease in the All of Us Research Program

Association of step counts over time with the risk of chronic disease in the All of Us Research Program The association between physical activity and human disease has not been examined using commercial devices linked to electronic health records. Using the electronic health records data from the All of Us Research Program, we show that step count volumes as captured by participants’ own Fitbit devices were associated with risk of chronic disease across the entire human phenome. Of the 6,042 ...

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Phase angle obtained via bioelectrical impedance analysis and objectively measured physical activity or exercise habits

The phase angle (PhA), measured via bioelectrical impedance analysis, is considered an indicator of cellular health, where higher values reflect higher cellularity, cell membrane integrity, and better cell function. This study aimed to examine the relationship between PhA and exercise habits or objectively measured physical activity. We included 115 people aged 32–69 years. The body composition and PhA were measured using a bioelectrical impedance device. Physical activity and sedentary behavior ...

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Alzheimer’s disease large-scale gene expression portrait identifies exercise as the top theoretical treatment

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder that affects multiple brain regions and is difficult to treat. In this study we used 22 AD large-scale gene expression datasets to identify a consistent underlying portrait of AD gene expression across multiple brain regions. Then we used the portrait as a platform for identifying treatments that could reverse AD dysregulated expression patterns. Enrichment of dysregulated AD genes included multiple processes, ranging from cell ...

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Influence of prenatal exercise on the relationship between maternal overweight and obesity and select delivery outcomes

Women with overweight or obesity (OWOB) have an increased risk of cesarean birth, preterm birth (PTB), and high birth weight infants. Although regular exercise decreases this risk in healthy weight women, these associations have not been explored in OWOB. Women were randomized at 13–16 weeks’ gestation to 150-min of moderate-intensity exercise (n = 131) or non-exercising control (n = 61). Delivery mode, gestational age (GA), and birth weight (BW) were obtained ...

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Bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate one-repetition maximum measurement of muscle strength for leg press in healthy young adults

Resistance training (RT) progress is determined by an individual’s muscle strength, measured by one-repetition maximum (1RM). However, this evaluation is time-consuming and has some safety concerns. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a valid and easy-to-use method to assess skeletal muscle mass (SMM). Although BIA measurements are often correlated with muscle strength, few studies of 1RM for RT and BIA measurements are available. This observational study examined the relationship between ...

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Feasibility and impact of whole-body high-intensity interval training in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a randomised controlled trial

Exercise training reduces cardiovascular mortality and improves quality of life in CAD patients. We investigated the feasibility and impact of 12 weeks of low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in CAD-patients. Patients with stable CAD were randomized 1:1 to supervised HIIT or standard care. HIIT sessions were completed three times weekly for 12 weeks on a rowing ergometer. Before and after the 12-week intervention, patients completed a physiological evaluation of cardiorespiratory performance ...

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3D synchrotron imaging of muscle tissues at different atrophic stages in stroke and spinal cord injury: a proof-of-concept study

Synchrotron X-ray computed tomography (SXCT) allows 3D imaging of tissue with a very large field of view and an excellent micron resolution and enables the investigation of muscle fiber atrophy in 3D. The study aimed to explore the 3D micro-architecture of healthy skeletal muscle fibers and muscle fibers at different stages of atrophy (stroke sample = muscle atrophy; spinal cord injury (SCI) sample = severe muscle atrophy). Three muscle samples: a healthy control sample; ...

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A randomized, cross-over trial assessing effects of beverage sodium concentration on plasma sodium concentration and plasma volume during prolonged exercise in the heat

Purpose: This study assessed whether increasing sodium in a sports drink above that typical (~ 20 mmol L−1) affects plasma sodium and volume responses during prolonged exercise in the heat. Methods: Endurance trained males (N = 11, 36 ± 14 y, 75.36 ± 5.30 kg, V˙ O2max 60 ± 3 mL min−1 kg−1) fulfilled requirements of the study including one 1-h exercise pre-trial, to estimate fluid losses (to prescribe ...

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Interscapular fat is associated with impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance independent of visceral fat mass

Objective: Dysregulated body fat distribution is a major determinant of various diseases. In particular, increased visceral fat mass and ectopic lipids in the liver are linked to metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, interscapular fat is considered to be a metabolically active fat compartment. Methods: This study measured interscapular fat mass and investigated its relationship with glucose metabolism in 822 individuals with a wide range of BMI values and ...

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Plasma circulating microRNAs associated with obesity, body fat distribution, and fat mass: the Rotterdam Study

Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally and are implicated in the pathogenesis of different diseases. Limited studies have investigated the association of circulating miRNAs with obesity and body fat distribution and their link to obesity-related diseases using population-based data. Methods: We conducted a genome-wide profile of circulating miRNAs in plasma, collected between 2002 and 2005, in 1208 participants ...

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With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility: Common Errors in Meta-Analyses and Meta-Regressions in Strength & Conditioning Research

Background and Objective: Meta-analysis and meta-regression are often highly cited and may influence practice. Unfortunately, statistical errors in meta-analyses are widespread and can lead to flawed conclusions. The purpose of this article was to review common statistical errors in meta-analyses and to document their frequency in highly cited meta-analyses from strength and conditioning research. Methods: We identified five errors in one highly cited meta-regression from strength and conditioning ...

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Chronic intake of high dietary sucrose induces sexually dimorphic metabolic adaptations in mouse liver and adipose tissue

Almost all effective treatments for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) involve reduction of adiposity, which suggests the metabolic axis between liver and adipose tissue is essential to NAFLD development. Since excessive dietary sugar intake may be an initiating factor for NAFLD, we have characterized the metabolic effects of liquid sucrose intake at concentrations relevant to typical human consumption in mice. We report that sucrose intake induces sexually dimorphic effects in liver, adipose ...

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Mitochondrial network configuration influences sarcomere and myosin filament structure in striated muscles

Sustained muscle contraction occurs through interactions between actin and myosin filaments within sarcomeres and requires a constant supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from nearby mitochondria. However, it remains unclear how different physical configurations between sarcomeres and mitochondria alter the energetic support for contractile function. Here, we show that sarcomere cross-sectional area (CSA) varies along its length in a cell type-dependent manner where the reduction in Z-disk CSA ...

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Irisin promotes fracture healing by improving osteogenesis and angiogenesis

Background: Osteogenesis and angiogenesis are important for bone fracture healing. Irisin is a muscle-derived monokine that is associated with bone formation. Methods: To demonstrate the effect of irisin on bone fracture healing, closed mid-diaphyseal femur fractures were produced in 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice. Irisin was administrated intraperitoneally every other day after surgery, fracture healing was assessed by using X-rays. Bone morphometry of the fracture callus were assessed by using micro-computed ...

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Exerkine fibronectin type-III domain-containing protein 5/irisin-enriched extracellular vesicles delay vascular ageing by increasing SIRT6 stability

Aims: Exercise confers protection against cardiovascular ageing, but the mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study sought to investigate the role of fibronectin type-III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5)/irisin, an exercise-associated hormone, in vascular ageing. Moreover, the existence of FNDC5/irisin in circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their biological functions was explored. Methods and results: FNDC5/irisin was reduced in natural ageing, senescence, and angiotensin II (Ang ...

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Eight weeks of Pilates exercise improved physical performance of overweight and obese women without significant changes in body composition and serum myokines

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks Pilates exercise on physical performance, body composition, and serum myokines level of overweight and obese women. Methods: Twenty six middle-age, sedentary overweight and obese women (age; 43.6 ± 1.8 years old, body mass index; 28.3 ± 1.14 kg/m2) volunteered to participate in the study and randomized to either the experimental (n = 13) or control group (n = 13). ...

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Central autonomic network alterations in male endurance athletes

Physical exercise causes marked adjustments in brain function and the cardiovascular system. Brain regions of the so-called central autonomic network (CAN) are likely to show exercise-related alterations due to their involvement in cardiac control, yet exercise-induced CAN changes remain unclear. Here we investigate the effects of intensive exercise on brain regions involved in cardiac autonomic regulation using resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). We explored rsFC of six core regions within ...

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Ablation of Ghrelin Receptor Mitigates the Metabolic Decline of Aging Skeletal Muscle

The orexigenic hormone ghrelin has multifaceted roles in health and disease. We have reported that ablation of the ghrelin receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), protects against metabolic dysfunction of adipose tissues in aging. Our further observation interestingly revealed that GHS-R deficiency phenocopies the effects of myokine irisin. In this study, we aim to determine whether GHS-R affects the metabolic functions of aging skeletal muscle and whether GHS-R regulates the muscular ...

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Definition of an adapted cut-off for determining low lean tissue mass in older women with obesity: a comparison to current cut-offs

The prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with obesity varies according to the definition used. The purpose of our study was to: (i) determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in terms of lean tissue mass in older women with obesity using the current cut-offs, (ii) redefine a specific cut-off for low lean tissue mass (LLTM), and (iii) re-determine the prevalence of LLTM using this new cut-off. Appendicular lean mass (ALM) and the ALM index [ALM/height2: ALMI(h2)] and ALMI/body mass index [ALMI(BMI)] were ...

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Protein O-GlcNAcylation and the regulation of energy homeostasis: lessons from knock-out mouse models

O-GlcNAcylation corresponds to the addition of N-Acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) on serine or threonine residues of cytosolic, nuclear and mitochondrial proteins. This reversible modification is catalysed by a unique couple of enzymes, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). OGT uses UDP-GlcNAc produced in the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway, to modify proteins. UDP-GlcNAc is at the cross-roads of several cellular metabolisms, including glucose, amino acids and fatty acids. Therefore, OGT is ...

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Effects of multi-directional step exercise with weight-shifting as an adjunct to conventional exercises on balance and gait in stroke patients

Stroke patients have gait dysfunctions that affect their activities of daily living. Stroke patients should be able to take multi-directional steps as it is necessary to achieve an independent gait. The study aimed to examine the effects of multi-directional step exercises (MSE) along with weight-shifting as an adjunct to conventional therapeutic exercises (CTE) on functional gait performance and balance in patients with stroke. Twenty-four stroke patients (mean age 56.75 years) participated in the ...

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Acute and chronic cardiometabolic responses induced by resistance training with blood flow restriction in HIV patients

Resistance training with blood flow restriction (RTBFR) allows physically impaired people living with HIV (PWH) to exercise at lower intensities than traditional resistance training (TRT). But the acute and chronic cardiac and metabolic responses of PWH following an RTBFR protocol are unknown. The objective was to compare the safety of acute and chronic effects on hemodynamic and lipid profiles between TRT or RTBFR in PWH. In this randomized control trial, 14 PWH were allocated in RTBFR (GRTBFR; ...

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Compression-induced improvements in post-exercise recovery are associated with enhanced blood flow, and are not due to the placebo effect

The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological effects of compression tights on blood flow following exercise and to assess if the placebo effect is responsible for any acute performance or psychological benefits. Twenty-two resistance-trained participants completed a lower-body resistance exercise session followed by a 4 h recovery period. Participants were assigned a post-exercise recovery intervention of either compression tights applied for 4 h (COMP), placebo tablet consumed every ...

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Effects of functional training with blood occlusion on the irisin, follistatin, and myostatin myokines in elderly men

Background: This study aimed to determine the efficacy of functional training with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscle hypertrophy indices and strength in older men. Methods: Thirty older adults (67.7 ± 5.8 years) were randomly assigned to three groups: functional training (FT), functional training with BFR (FTBFR), and control (C). Participants in experimental groups were trained in three sessions per week for six weeks. They performed 11 whole body exercises, ...

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Moderate physical activity against effects of short-term PM2.5 exposure on BP via myokines-induced inflammation

Exposure to PM2.5 increases blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We conducted a randomized controlled panel study in Shijiazhuang, China among 55 healthy college students randomly assigned to either the control (CON) or SPORTS group with intervention of 2000 m jogging in 20 min for 3 times in 4 days, and 3-round health examinations from November 15, 2020 to December 6, 2020. We aimed to evaluate whether moderate physical activity (PA) protected BP health against PM2.5 exposure ...

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Impact of Sustained Exogenous Irisin Myokine Administration on Muscle and Myocyte Integrity in Sprague Dawley Rats

Irisin is an exercise-induced myokine implicated as a fundamental mediator of physical activity benefits. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the chronic administration model of irisin on the physiological and molecular status of skeletal muscle. A total of 20 female Sprague Dawley rats (250 ± 40 g) were implanted with an irisin-loaded osmotic pump (5 µg/kg/day) for 42 days; in addition, 3 females received a single subcutaneous injection of irisin (5 µg/kg). ...

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Inter-organellar and systemic responses to impaired mitochondrial matrix protein import in skeletal muscle

Effective protein import from cytosol is critical for mitochondrial functions and metabolic regulation. We describe here the mammalian muscle-specific and systemic consequences to disrupted mitochondrial matrix protein import by targeted deletion of the mitochondrial HSP70 co-chaperone GRPEL1. Muscle-specific loss of GRPEL1 caused rapid muscle atrophy, accompanied by shut down of oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, and excessive triggering of proteotoxic stress responses. ...

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Impact of high-access exercise prior to and during early adolescence on later vulnerability to opioid use and relapse in male rats

Middle- and high-school athletes participating in certain team sports are at greater risk of opioid misuse and addiction than those who do not. While this risk is thought to be due to increased access to opioids, in this study we explored the possibility that the sensitizing effects of discontinued high-intensity exercise may also contribute. Specifically, using male rat models with fentanyl, we tested the hypothesis that high-access exercise (24 h/day access to a running wheel) during pre/early ...

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Deletion of skeletal muscle Akt1/2 causes osteosarcopenia and reduces lifespan in mice

Aging is considered to be accelerated by insulin signaling in lower organisms, but it remained unclear whether this could hold true for mammals. Here we show that mice with skeletal muscle-specific double knockout of Akt1/2, key downstream molecules of insulin signaling, serve as a model of premature sarcopenia with insulin resistance. The knockout mice exhibit a progressive reduction in skeletal muscle mass, impairment of motor function and systemic insulin sensitivity. They also show osteopenia, ...

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A comparative study on the analysis of hemodynamics in the athlete’s heart

The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of the athlete’s heart are still poorly understood. To characterize the intracavitary blood flows in the right ventricle (RV) and right-ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) in 2 healthy probands, patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and 2 endurance athletes, we performed 4D-MRI flow measurements to assess differences in kinetic energy and shear stresses. Time evolution of velocity magnitude, mean kinetic ...

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Muscle function and functional performance after pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective observational study

This study aimed to measure changes in different properties of skeletal muscles and evaluate their contribution and relationship to changes in functional performance after pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD outpatients attending 5 weeks of conventional PR were recruited. Functional performance [5-repetitions sit-to-stand (5STS), and 4-m gait speed (4mGS)], and muscle function (maximal isometric strength, power, force control, and relative ...

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The relationship between pre-operative psoas and skeletal muscle parameters and survival following endovascular aneurysm repair: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Sarcopenia is characterised by chronically reduced skeletal muscle volume and function, and is determined radiologically by psoas and skeletal muscle measurement. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aims to examine the relationship between pre-operative CT-derived psoas and skeletal muscle parameters and outcomes in patients undergoing EVAR and F/B-EVAR for aortic aneurysm. The MEDLINE database was interrogated for studies investigating the effect of pre-operative CT-diagnosed sarcopenia ...

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Investigating the rate of skeletal muscle atrophy in men and women in the intensive care unit: a prospective observational study

Muscle atrophy greatly affects the prognosis of patients in the intensive care unit, but the rate of change remains unclear. In this prospective observational study, we used ultrasound to measure the change in muscle thickness of the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus intermedius (VI) in 284 patients who were admitted to the SICU of Taoyuan General Hospital between January 1 and June 30, 2020. Patients were excluded if there is a wound at the right thigh which hinders the ultrasonography probe from placing. ...

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Timing of daily calorie loading affects appetite and hunger responses without changes in energy metabolism in healthy subjects with obesity

Morning loaded calorie intake in humans has been advocated as a dietary strategy to improve weight loss. This is also supported by animal studies suggesting time of eating can prevent weight gain. However, the underlying mechanisms through which timing of eating could promote weight loss in humans are unclear. In a randomized crossover trial (NCT03305237), 30 subjects with obesity/overweight underwent two 4-week calorie-restricted but isoenergetic weight loss diets, with morning loaded or evening ...

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Variability in energy expenditure is much greater in males than females

In mammals, trait variation is often reported to be greater among males than females. However, to date, mainly only morphological traits have been studied. Energy expenditure represents the metabolic costs of multiple physical, physiological, and behavioral traits. Energy expenditure could exhibit particularly high greater male variation through a cumulative effect if those traits mostly exhibit greater male variation, or a lack of greater male variation if many of them do not. Sex differences in ...

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Association of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid intake with leukocyte telomere length in US males

Background: Omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids may contribute to oxidative stress and inflammation, which are related to telomere shortening. Evidence supporting an association between intake of n-3 or n-6 fatty acids and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in males has been limited. Objective: We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine the associations of total or individual n-3 or total n-6 fatty acid intake with LTL in US males. Methods: We included 2,494 US males with LTL measurement ...

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Effects of an Exercise Program on Brain Health Outcomes for Children With Overweight or Obesity

Importance: Pediatric overweight and obesity are highly prevalent across the world, with implications for poorer cognitive and brain health. Exercise might potentially attenuate these adverse consequences. Objectives: To investigate the effects of an exercise program on brain health indicators, including intelligence, executive function, academic performance, and brain outcomes, among children with overweight or obesity and to explore potential mediators and moderators of the main effects of exercise. Design, ...

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Dose-Dependent Effect of Melatonin on BAT Thermogenesis in Zücker Diabetic Fatty Rat: Future Clinical Implications for Obesity

Experimental data have revealed that melatonin at high doses reduced obesity and improved metabolic outcomes in experimental models of obesity, mainly by enhancing brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. A potential dose-response relationship has yet to be performed to translate these promising findings into potential clinical therapy. This study aimed to assess the effects of different doses of melatonin on interscapular BAT (iBAT) thermogenic capacity in Zücker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. ...

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Chronic docosahexaenoic acid supplementation improves metabolic plasticity in subcutaneous adipose tissue of aged obese female mice

This study aimed to characterize the potential beneficial effects of chronic docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on restoring subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) plasticity in obese aged female mice. Two-month-old female C57BL/6J mice received a control (CT) or a high fat diet (HFD) for 4 months. Then, 6-month-old diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were distributed into the DIO and the DIOMEG group (fed with a DHA-enriched HFD) up to 18 months. In scWAT, the DHA-enriched diet reduced the ...

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Sirtuin 6 inhibition protects against glucocorticoid-induced skeletal muscle atrophy by regulating IGF/PI3K/AKT signaling

Chronic activation of stress hormones such as glucocorticoids leads to skeletal muscle wasting in mammals. However, the molecular events that mediate glucocorticoid-induced muscle wasting are not well understood. Here, we show that SIRT6, a chromatin-associated deacetylase indirectly regulates glucocorticoid-induced muscle wasting by modulating IGF/PI3K/AKT signaling. Our results show that SIRT6 levels are increased during glucocorticoid-induced reduction of myotube size and during skeletal muscle ...

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Sclerostin aggravates insulin signaling in skeletal muscle and hepatic steatosis via upregulation of ER stress by mTOR-mediated inhibition of autophagy under hyperlipidemic conditions

Recently, sclerostin (SCL), a circulating glycoprotein, was proposed to be a novel myokine involved in developing metabolic disorders. The association between SCL levels and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue was studied in individuals with aggravated glucose tolerance. Thus, we hypothesized that elevated circulating SCL might affect skeletal muscle insulin signaling and hepatic lipid metabolism, and aimed to investigate the effects of SCL on skeletal muscle insulin ...

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Extracellular vesicles mediate the communication of adipose tissue with brain and promote cognitive impairment associated with insulin resistance

Type 2 diabetes with obesity-related insulin resistance as the main manifestation is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. Adipose tissue plays an important role in this process. Here, we demonstrated that adipose tissue-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their cargo microRNAs (miRNAs) mediate inter-organ communication between adipose tissue and the brain, which can be transferred into the brain in a membrane protein-dependent manner and enriched in neurons, especially ...

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Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids play roles in skeletal muscle-adipose tissue crosstalk through myokines

Purpose: Skeletal muscle-adipose tissue crosstalk is important for maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Myokine plays an indispensable role in the skeletal muscle-adipose tissue crosstalk. This study was conducted to elucidate the association between Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and myokine and figure out the role of n-3 PUFAs in the skeletal muscle-adipose tissue crosstalk. Methods: The mRNA expression of myokines, including IL-6, Irisin, IL-15, myostatin, FGF21, adiponectin, leptin ...

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Relationships between Uncoupling Protein Genes UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 and Irisin Levels in Residents of the Coldest Region of Siberia

Currently, it is known that irisin can participate in the processes of thermoregulation and browning of adipose tissue, and, therefore, it is possible that it is involved in the microevolutionary mechanisms of adaptation to a cold. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the uncoupling protein genes (UCP1, UCP2, UCP3) and the irisin levels in the residents of the coldest region of Siberia. The sample consisted of 279 Yakut people (185 females, 94 males, average age 19.8 ± ...

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Exercise effects on cardiovascular disease: from basic aspects to clinical evidence

Cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of major morbidity and CVD- and all-cause mortality in most of the world. It is now clear that regular physical activity (PA) and exercise training (ET) induces a wide range of direct and indirect physiologic adaptations and pleiotropic benefits for human general and CV health. Generally, higher levels of PA, ET, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are correlated with reduced risk of CVD, including myocardial infarction, CVD-related death, ...

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Irisin, an Effective Treatment for Cardiovascular Diseases?

Irisin, as one of the myokines induced by exercise, has attracted much attention due to its important physiological functions such as white fat browning, the improvement in metabolism, and the alleviation of inflammation. Despite the positive role that irisin has been proven to play in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, whether it can become a biomarker and potential target for predicting and treating cardiovascular diseases remains controversial, given the unreliability of ...

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Exercise training-induced changes in immunometabolic markers in youth badminton athletes

The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolic and inflammatory fluctuations in two seasonal phases of badminton training, and the ability of youth badminton athletes to respond to an inflammatory challenge given by acute exercise on these markers. Thirteen youth badminton athletes who participated in national and international competitions were recruited. Metabolic and cytokine profile were measured at rest and in response to a maximal exercise intermittent test, in the pre- and final phases ...

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The influence of sexual activity on athletic performance: a systematic review and meta-analyses

Several anecdotal reports suggest that sex before competition can affect performance. Our objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether athletic performance or some physical fitness measure is affected by prior sexual activity. Web of Science (all databases) and Google Scholar were used to identify studies from which adult healthy subjects were included. As all studies were crossover trials, an inverse variance statistical method with random effects was used ...

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The evolving view of thermogenic fat and its implications in cancer and metabolic diseases

The incidence of metabolism-related diseases like obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus has reached pandemic levels worldwide and increased gradually. Most of them are listed on the table of high-risk factors for malignancy, and metabolic disorders systematically or locally contribute to cancer progression and poor prognosis of patients. Importantly, adipose tissue is fundamental to the occurrence and development of these metabolic disorders. White adipose tissue stores excessive energy, while thermogenic ...

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Differences in spinal posture and mobility between children/adolescents with obesity and age-matched normal-weight individuals

The aim of this study was to cross-sectionally explore the association of obesity with spinal posture and mobility, commonly associated with musculoskeletal problems, by comparing the spinal parameters between 90 obese and 109 normal-weight children and adolescents. A non-invasive electromechanical device, the Idiag M360 (Idiag, Fehraltorf, Switzerland), was used to measure the spinal parameters. An age-and-sex-adjusted two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine postural and mobility ...

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Self-Perceived Physical Level and Fitness Performance in Children and Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

ackground: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients show a higher risk of developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases due to the presence of systemic low-grade chronic inflammation. Exercise can improve cardiovascular fitness and modulate the inflammatory processes. We evaluated the physical activity (PA) level and the fitness performance of children and adolescents with IBD. Patients and methods: We considered 54 pediatric patients with IBD (14.6 ± 2.2; 22 M), including CD (n = 27) ...

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Pomegranate Extract Augments Energy Expenditure Counteracting the Metabolic Stress Associated with High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obesity

Obesity is associated to a low grade of chronic inflammation leading to metabolic stress, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, dislipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and even cancer. A Mediterranean diet has been shown to reduce systemic inflammatory factors, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. In this scenario, precision nutrition may provide complementary approaches to target the metabolic alterations associated to “unhealthy obesity”. In a previous work, we described a pomegranate ...

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Lactobacillus plantarum S9 alleviates lipid profile, insulin resistance, and inflammation in high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome rats

Probiotics are considered to play an crucial role in the treatment of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced lipid metabolic diseases, including metabolic syndrome (MS). This study aimed to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum S9 on MS in HFD-fed rats, and to explore the underlying role of probiotics in the treatment of MS. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with HFD for 8 weeks, followed by the treatment of L. plantarum S9 for 6 weeks, and The body weight and blood glucose level of rats were detected ...

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Irisin is more strongly associated with leisure-time physical activity than resistin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are

Obectives: Irisin is a myokine with a potential role in cardiometabolic diseases, but previous studies have described inconsistencies between serum irisin and physical activity (PA). Our aim was to analyze the relationship between serum irisin and leisure-time PA (LTPA) in a large sample of the general adult population, and secondarily, to evaluate its relationship with two PA-related biomarkers (HDL cholesterol and resistin). Design: A cross-sectional study was nested in the “CDC of the Canary ...

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Irisin stimulates protective signaling pathways in rat hippocampal neurons

Physical exercise stimulates neuroprotective pathways, has pro-cognitive actions, and alleviates memory impairment in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Irisin is an exercise-linked hormone produced by cleavage of fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5 (FNDC5) in skeletal muscle, brain and other tissues. Irisin was recently shown to mediate the brain benefits of exercise in AD mouse models. Here, we sought to obtain insight into the neuroprotective actions of irisin. We demonstrate that adenoviral-mediated ...

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Irisin Is Related to Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)

Irisin is a cytokine involved in many metabolic pathways occurring, among others, in muscles, adipose tissue and liver. Thus, fluctuations in irisin levels are suggested to be related to metabolic diseases. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to evaluate whether irisin may be associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A total of 138 patients (70/68 male/female, mean age 65.61 ± 10.44 years) were enrolled in the study. The patients were assigned to the NAFLD group (n = 72, ...

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Stretching muscle cells induces transcriptional and splicing transitions and changes in SR proteins

Alternative splicing is an RNA processing mechanism involved in skeletal muscle development and pathology. Muscular diseases exhibit splicing alterations and changes in mechanobiology leading us to investigate the interconnection between mechanical forces and RNA processing. We performed deep RNA-sequencing after stretching muscle cells. First, we uncovered transcriptional changes in genes encoding proteins involved in muscle function and transcription. Second, we observed that numerous mechanosensitive ...

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Lumican, an Exerkine, Protects against Skeletal Muscle Loss

Exerkines are soluble factors secreted by exercised muscles, mimicking the effects of exercise in various organs, including the muscle itself. Lumican is reportedly secreted from muscles; however, its roles in skeletal muscle remain unknown. Herein, we found that lumican mRNA expression in the extensor digitorum longus was significantly higher in exercised mice than in unloading mice, and lumican stimulated myogenesis in vitro. Additionally, lumican knockdown significantly decreased muscle mass and ...

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The role of exercise-induced myokines in promoting angiogenesis

Ischemic diseases are a major cause of mortality or disability in the clinic. Surgical or medical treatment often has poor effect on patients with tissue and organ ischemia caused by diffuse stenoses. Promoting angiogenesis is undoubtedly an effective method to improve perfusion in ischemic tissues and organs. Although many animal or clinical studies tried to use stem cell transplantation, gene therapy, or cytokines to promote angiogenesis, these methods could not be widely applied in the clinic ...

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Immunoglobulin Superfamily Containing Leucine-Rich Repeat (Islr) Participates in IL-6-Mediated Crosstalk between Muscle and Brown Adipose Tissue to Regulate Energy Homeostasis

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is functionally linked to skeletal muscle because both tissues originate from a common progenitor cell, but the precise mechanism controlling muscle-to-brown-fat communication is insufficiently understood. This report demonstrates that the immunoglobulin superfamily containing leucine-rich repeat (Islr), a marker of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, is critical for the control of BAT mitochondrial function and whole-body energy homeostasis. The mice loss of Islr in BAT after ...

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Browning of the white adipose tissue regulation: new insights into nutritional and metabolic relevance in health and diseases

Adipose tissues are dynamic tissues that play crucial physiological roles in maintaining health and homeostasis. Although white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue are currently considered key endocrine organs, they differ functionally and morphologically. The existence of the beige or brite adipocytes, cells displaying intermediary characteristics between white and brown adipocytes, illustrates the plastic nature of the adipose tissue. These cells are generated through white adipose tissue browning, ...

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Implication of Irisin in Different Types of Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Cancer is a set of diseases characterized by several hallmark properties, such as increased angiogenesis, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. The increased angiogenic activity constantly supplies the tumors with nutrients and a plethora of cytokines to ensure cell survival. Along these cytokines is a newly discovered protein, called irisin, which is released into the circulation after physical exercise. Irisin is the product of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) proteolytic ...

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Genome-wide association analyses of physical activity and sedentary behavior provide insights into underlying mechanisms and roles in disease prevention

Although physical activity and sedentary behavior are moderately heritable, little is known about the mechanisms that influence these traits. Combining data for up to 703,901 individuals from 51 studies in a multi-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies yields 99 loci that associate with self-reported moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity during leisure time (MVPA), leisure screen time (LST) and/or sedentary behavior at work. Loci associated with LST are enriched for ...

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Effects of three modes of physical activity on physical fitness and hematological parameters in older people with sarcopenic obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effects of three modes of physical activity (PA) (aerobic training [AT], resistance training [RT], and aerobic combined with resistance training [MT]) on body composition (body weight [BW], body mass index [BMI] and percentage of body fat [BF%]), muscle mass (skeletal muscle mass [SM], appendicular skeletal muscle mass [ASM] and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index [ASMI]), muscle strength (handgrip strength [HG] and knee extension ...

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Exercise Induced-Cytokines Response in Marathon Runners: Role of ACE I/D and BDKRB2 +9/-9 Polymorphisms

Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) have a different site of interaction and modulate vascular tone and inflammatory response as well on exercise adaptation, which is modulated by exercise-induced cytokines. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of ACE I/D and BDKRB2 +9/−9 polymorphism on exercise-induced cytokine response. Seventy-four male marathon finishers, aged 30 to 55 years, participated in this study. Plasma levels of exercise-induced cytokines were ...

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Exercise training enhances muscle mitochondrial metabolism in diet-resistant obesity

Background: Current paradigms for predicting weight loss in response to energy restriction have general validity but a subset of individuals fail to respond adequately despite documented diet adherence. Patients in the bottom 20% for rate of weight loss following a hypocaloric diet (diet-resistant) have been found to have less type I muscle fibres and lower skeletal muscle mitochondrial function, leading to the hypothesis that physical exercise may be an effective treatment when diet alone is inadequate. ...

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Exercise training maintains cardiovascular health: signaling pathways involved and potential therapeutics

Exercise training has been widely recognized as a healthy lifestyle as well as an effective non-drug therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Functional and mechanistic studies that employ animal exercise models as well as observational and interventional cohort studies with human participants, have contributed considerably in delineating the essential signaling pathways by which exercise promotes cardiovascular fitness and health. First, this review summarizes the beneficial impact ...

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Importance of frequency and intensity of strength training for work ability among physical therapists

The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between frequency and intensity of strength training participation and work ability among physical therapists (PTs). The Work Ability Index questionnaire (WAI) and a questionnaire about participation in strength training during leisure time were administered to a sample of Spanish PTs. In addition, participants provided information on gender, age, body mass index, education, substance use, working experience and working hours per week. The odds ...

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Association of Leisure Time Physical Activity Types and Risks of All-Cause, Cardiovascular, and Cancer Mortality Among Older Adults

Importance: Higher amounts of physical activity are associated with increased longevity. However, whether different leisure time physical activity types are differentially associated with mortality risk is not established. Objectives: To examine whether participation in equivalent amounts of physical activity (7.5 to <15 metabolic equivalent of task [MET] hours per week) through different activity types is associated with mortality risk and to investigate the shape of the dose-response association. Design, ...

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Signaling pathways in obesity: mechanisms and therapeutic interventions

Obesity is a complex, chronic disease and global public health challenge. Characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the body, obesity sharply increases the risk of several diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and is linked to lower life expectancy. Although lifestyle intervention (diet and exercise) has remarkable effects on weight management, achieving long-term success at weight loss is extremely challenging, and the prevalence of ...

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Adipocytes control food intake and weight regain via Vacuolar-type H+ ATPase

Energy metabolism becomes dysregulated in individuals with obesity and many of these changes persist after weight loss and likely play a role in weight regain. In these studies, we use a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and weight loss to study the transcriptional memory of obesity. We found that the ‘metabolic memory’ of obesity is predominantly localized in adipocytes. Utilizing a C. elegans-based food intake assay, we identify ‘metabolic memory’ genes that play a role ...

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Of mice and men: Considerations on adipose tissue physiology in animal models of obesity and human studies

The ever-increasing burden of obesity demands a better pathophysiological understanding, especially regarding adipose tissue pathophysiology. Animal models of obesity are of great importance in investigating potential mechanisms and implications of obesity. Many issues should be considered while interpreting the preclinical results as anatomical and pathophysiological differences exist among species. Importantly, the natural history of obesity development differs considerably. An important example ...

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A preliminary study on the role of Piezo1 channels in myokine release from cultured mouse myotubes

It has long been known that regular physical exercise induces short and long term benefits reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, cancer and improves sleep quality, cognitive level, mobility, autonomy in enderly. More recent is the evidence on the endocrine role of the contracting skeletal muscle. Exercise triggers the release of miokines, which act in autocrine, paracrine and endocrine ways controlling the activity of muscles but also of other tissues and organs such ...

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RSPO3 is a novel contraction-inducible factor identified in an “in vitro exercise model” using primary human myotubes

The physiological significance of skeletal muscle as a secretory organ is now well known but we can only speculate as to the existence of as-yet-unidentified myokines, especially those upregulated in response to muscle contractile activity. We first attempted to establish an “insert-chamber based in vitro exercise model” allowing the miniature but high cell-density culture state enabling highly developed contractile human myotubes to be readily obtained by applying electric pulse stimulation ...

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Acute Neuromuscular, Physiological and Performance Responses After Strength Training in Runners: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Background: Strength training (ST) is commonly used to improve muscle strength, power, and neuromuscular adaptations and is recommended combined with runner training. It is possible that the acute effects of the strength training session lead to deleterious effects in the subsequent running. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to verify the acute effects of ST session on the neuromuscular, physiological and performance variables of runners. Methods: Studies evaluating running ...

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Clinical and Biological Adaptations in Obese Older Adults Following 12-Weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training or Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training

Sarcopenia and obesity are considered a double health burden. Therefore, the implementation of effective strategies is needed to improve the quality of life of older obese individuals. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on functional capacities, muscle function, body composition and blood biomarkers in obese older adults. Adipose tissue gene expression and markers of muscle mitochondrial content ...

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Obesity impairs skeletal muscle repair through NID-1 mediated extracellular matrix remodeling by mesenchymal progenitors

Obesity triggers skeletal muscle physio-pathological alterations. However, the crosstalk between adipose tissue and myogenic cells remains poorly understood during obesity. We identified NID-1 among the adipose tissue secreted factors impairing myogenic potential of human myoblasts and murine muscle stem cells in vitro. Mice under High Fat Diet (HFD) displayed increased NID-1 expression in the skeletal muscle endomysium associated with intramuscular fat adipose tissue expansion and compromised muscle ...

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Meteorin-like protein (Metrnl): A metabolic syndrome biomarker and an exercise mediator

Metrnl is a secreted protein able to activate different intracellular signaling pathways in adipocytes, macrophages, myocytes and cardiomyocytes with physiological effects of the browning of white adipose tissue (BWT), insulin sensitivity, inflammation inhibition, skeletal muscle regeneration and heart protection. Shown to be regulated by obesity, diabetes, caloric restriction, weight loss and heart diseases, Metrnl is definitely involved in metabolic turbulences, and may play roles in metabolic ...

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Exercise hormone irisin prevents physical inactivity-induced cognitive decline in mice

We previously reported that physical inactivity (PI) induces cognitive decline and depressive states, which were ameliorated by regular exercise. However, the mechanism underlying the preventive effect of exercise remains unelucidated. Irisin has recently been identified as an exercise-inducible myokine that improves cognitive impairment. Plasma irisin levels increase during physical exercise; therefore, PI could lead to a decline in cognitive function by reducing plasma irisin. Therefore, this study ...

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Cinnamic Acid Attenuates Peripheral and Hypothalamic Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

Obesity is closely linked to chronic inflammation in peripheral organs and the hypothalamus. Chronic consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) induces the differentiation of Ly6chigh monocytes into macrophages in adipose tissue, the liver, and the brain, as well as the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Although cinnamon improves obesity and related diseases, it is unclear which components of cinnamon can affect macrophages and inflammatory cytokines. We performed in silico analyses using ADME, ...

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Coronary flow velocity reserve is reduced in patients with an exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise

Coronary artery disease and cardiovascular mortality are increased in patients with an exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise. The exact cause of this increase remains unknown, but previous studies have indicated the presence of endothelial dysfunction in peripheral arteries and subclinical atherosclerosis in these patients. The present study aimed to clarify whether coronary microvascular dysfunction is also present in patients with exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise. A total ...

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Low muscle mass, low muscle function, and sarcopenia in the urban and rural elderly

Health outcomes of the elderly vary between rural and urban areas. Sarcopenia is diagnosed as loss of muscle strength or impaired physical performance, namely “low muscle function” and low muscle mass. Outcomes of low muscle mass and low muscle function are not equal. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of low muscle mass, low muscle function, and sarcopenia in rural and urban populations and to determine whether regional differences were associated with each of these components. ...

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Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Selected Adipokines and Cardiometabolic Risk Markers in Normal-Weight and Overweight/Obese Young Males. A Pre-Post Test Trial

The study aimed to assess effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on plasma adipokines and cardiometabolic markers in normal and excess weight youth. Eighteen healthy young males (18.2 ± 1.06 yrs.) were divided in normal-weight group (NWG; body mass index (BMI), 20.5 ± 1.51 kg/m2; n = 9) and excess-weight group (EWG; BMI, 30.8 ± 4.56 kg/m2; n = 9). Participants performed an eight-week HIIT program without caloric restriction. Body composition, plasma leptin, adiponectin, ...

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Lactate as a major myokine and exerkine

The roles of exerkines, factors released from tissues during exercise, in promoting health and longevity were recently addressed in the Review by Chow and colleagues (Chow, L. S. et al. Exerkines in health, resilience and disease. Nat. Rev. Endocrinol. 18, 273–289 (2022)1). However, their timely Review did not adequately describe the major and diverse roles of lactate in regulating metabolism and physiology. Here, we highlight important functions of lactate as an exerkine. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41574-022-00724-0  

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Exercise-induced signaling pathways to counteracting cardiac apoptotic processes

Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of death in the world. One of the major causes of cardiac death is excessive apoptosis. However, multiple pathways through moderate exercise can reduce myocardial apoptosis. After moderate exercise, the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins such as IGF-1, IGF-1R, p-PI3K, p-Akt, ERK-1/2, SIRT3, PGC-1α, and Bcl-2 increases in the heart. While apoptotic proteins such as PTEN, PHLPP-1, GSK-3, JNK, P38MAPK, and FOXO are reduced in the heart. Exercise-induced ...

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Effects of physical exercise on bone mineral density in older postmenopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Summary: Osteoporosis or decreased bone mineral density (BMD) is the most important risk factor for fractures, especially in older postmenopausal women (PMW). However, the interactions between exercise training and bone mineral density are not completely understood. We evaluated the effects of physical exercise on BMD in women aged ≥ 60 years postmenopausal. Purpose: This systematic review and meta-analysis sets out to determine the effects of physical exercise on BMD in older postmenopausal ...

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Effect of Physical Activity/Exercise on Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Muscle and Vascular Aging

Functional status is considered the main determinant of healthy aging. Impairment in skeletal muscle and the cardiovascular system, two interrelated systems, results in compromised functional status in aging. Increased oxidative stress and inflammation in older subjects constitute the background for skeletal muscle and cardiovascular system alterations. Aged skeletal muscle mass and strength impairment is related to anabolic resistance, mitochondrial dysfunction, increased oxidative stress and inflammation ...

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Seawater Hydration Modulates IL-6 and Apelin Production during Triathlon Events: A Crossover Randomized Study

A triathlon is an endurance event in which athletes need an efficient hydration strategy since hydration is restricted at different stages. However, it seems that seawater intake can be a suitable hydration alternative for this type of endurance event. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of seawater hydration during a triathlon on cytokine production. Fifteen trained male triathletes (age = 38.8 ± 5.62 years old; BMI = 22.58 ± 2.51 kg/m2) randomly performed ...

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Mechanisms of skeletal muscle repair and regeneration in health and disease

Skeletal muscle is a structurally and functionally remarkable tissue composed of multinucleated post-mitotic muscle fibres. These fibres are filled with an exquisite, near crystalline array of assembled contractile proteins, capable of coupling ATP utilization to mechanical muscle contraction. Fully differentiated muscle has an incredible ability to protect and repair itself from significant muscle injuries. In fact, through activation of a resident population of stem cells known as satellite cells, ...

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Circulating Irisin Levels in Patients with Chronic Plaque Psoriasis

Irisin is an adipo-myokine, mainly synthetized in skeletal muscles and adipose tissues, that is involved in multiple processes. Only a few studies have evaluated serum irisin in psoriatic patients. This study aims to analyze serum irisin levels in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis, to compare them with values in controls, and to assess whether concentration of circulating irisin correlates with the severity of psoriasis, calculated by means of Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). We enrolled ...

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A newly identified myokine: irisin, and its relationship with chronic spontaneous urticaria and inflammation

Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is an important dermatological disease involving severe itchy urticaria lesions and/or angioedema. Urticaria and angioedema occur in the community at a rate of 25–30%. Many factors, such as inflammation, have been implicated in the etiology of CSU. Irisin is a newly identified adipocytokine shown by research to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in addition to its many other effects. The aim of the study was to investigate, for the first time in the literature, ...

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T-bet+ B cells accumulate in adipose tissue and exacerbate metabolic disorder during obesity

Obesity is accompanied by inflammation in adipose tissue, impaired glucose tolerance, and changes in adipose leukocyte populations. These studies of adipose tissue from humans and mice revealed that increased frequencies of T-bet+ B cells in adipose tissue depend on invariant NKT cells and correlate with weight gain during obesity. Transfer of B cells enriched for T-bet+ cells exacerbates metabolic disorder in obesity, while ablation of Tbx21 specifically in B cells reduces serum IgG2c levels, inflammatory ...

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Hepatokine Fetuin B expression is regulated by leptin-STAT3 signalling and associated with leptin in obesity

Obesity is an expanding global public health problem and a leading cause of metabolic disorders. The hepatokine Fetuin B participates in regulating insulin resistance, glucose metabolism and liver steatosis. However, the mechanism underlying Fetuin B activation remains unclear. Our previous population-based study demonstrated a significant association between serum Fetuin B and body fat mass in an obese population, which indicates its potential in mediating obesity-related metabolic disorders. In ...

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EGFR-mediated activation of adipose tissue macrophages promotes obesity and insulin resistance

Obesity and obesity-related health complications are increasing in prevalence. Adipose tissue from obese subjects has low-grade, chronic inflammation, leading to insulin resistance. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are a source of proinflammatory cytokines that further aggravate adipocyte dysfunction. In response to a high fat diet (HFD), ATM numbers initially increase by proliferation of resident macrophages, but subsequent increases also result from infiltration in response to chemotactic signals ...

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Cinnamon extract improves abnormalities in glucose tolerance by decreasing Acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family 1 expression in adipocytes

We previously demonstrated that cinnamon extract (CE) alleviates streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in rats. The present study aimed to elucidate the detailed molecular target of cinnamon in cultured adipocytes and epididymal adipose tissue of type 2 diabetes model mice. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was employed to determine the molecular target of cinnamon in adipocytes. The function of Acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family-1 (ACSL1), a molecular target of cinnamon that was identified ...

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The promise of new anti-obesity therapies arising from knowledge of genetic obesity traits

Obesity is a multifactorial and complex disease that often manifests in early childhood with a lifelong burden. Polygenic and monogenic obesity are driven by the interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Polygenic variants are frequent and confer small effect sizes. Rare monogenic obesity syndromes are caused by defined pathogenic variants in single genes with large effect sizes. Most of these genes are involved in the central nervous regulation of body weight; for example, ...

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Morning Exercise Reduces Abdominal Fat and Blood Pressure in Women; Evening Exercise Increases Muscular Performance in Women and Lowers Blood Pressure in Men

The ideal exercise time of day (ETOD) remains elusive regarding simultaneous effects on health and performance outcomes, especially in women. Purpose: Given known sex differences in response to exercise training, this study quantified health and performance outcomes in separate cohorts of women and men adhering to different ETOD. Methods: Thirty exercise-trained women (BMI = 24 ± 3 kg/m2; 42 ± 8 years) and twenty-six men (BMI = 25.5 ± 3 kg/m2; 45 ± 8 years) were randomized ...

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Mathematical modeling reveals differential dynamics of insulin action models on glycerol and glucose in adolescent girls with obesity

Under healthy conditions, the pancreas responds to a glucose challenge by releasing insulin. Insulin suppresses lipolysis in adipose tissue, thereby decreasing plasma glycerol concentration, and it regulates plasma glucose concentration through action in muscle and liver. Insulin resistance (IR) occurs when more insulin is required to achieve the same effects, and IR may be tissue-specific. IR emerges during puberty as a result of high concentrations of growth hormone and is worsened by youth-onset ...

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Insulin Resistance in Peripheral Tissues and the Brain: A Tale of Two Sites?

The concept of insulin resistance has been around since a few decades after the discovery of insulin itself. To allude to the classic Charles Dicken’s novel published 62 years before the discovery of insulin, in some ways, this is the best of times, as the concept of insulin resistance has expanded to include the brain, with the realization that insulin has a life beyond the regulation of glucose. In other ways, it is the worst of times as insulin resistance is implicated in devastating diseases, ...

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In vivo transomic analyses of glucose-responsive metabolism in skeletal muscle reveal core differences between the healthy and obese states

In vivo transomic analyses of glucose-responsive metabolism in skeletal muscle reveal core differences between the healthy and obese states Metabolic regulation in skeletal muscle is essential for blood glucose homeostasis. Obesity causes insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, leading to hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we performed multiomic analysis of the skeletal muscle of wild-type (WT) and leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice, and constructed regulatory transomic networks for ...

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Protocol and reference values for minimal detectable change of MyotonPRO and ultrasound imaging measurements of muscle and subcutaneous tissue

The assessment of muscle health is of paramount importance, as the loss of muscle mass and strength can affect performance. Two non-invasive tools that have been found to be useful in this are the MyotonPRO and rehabilitative ultrasound imaging, both have shown to be reliable in previous studies many of which conducted by the research team. This study aims to determine the reliability of previously unassessed local body structures and to determine their minimal detectable changes (MDC) to support ...

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Association between changes in handgrip strength and depression in Korean adults: a longitudinal panel study

Depression in older adults is a global socioeconomic burden. Identifying factors, such as physical activity or exercise that can help prevent depression is important. We aimed to investigate the relationship between changes in handgrip strength and the presence of depression using longitudinal, nationwide data of older Korean adults. Data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging were used in this study. A total of 6783 participants who had undergone a handgrip strength test and completed the short-form ...

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Relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and coexisting obesity with low skeletal muscle mass in asymptomatic adult population

The relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and obesity with low skeletal muscle mass (LMM) has not been established. We aim to assess the association between HHcy and the coexistence of obesity and LMM in asymptomatic adult population. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study among asymptomatic individuals who underwent measurements of plasma homocysteine and body composition analysis. HHcy was defined as > 15 umol/L, obesity as body mass index ≥ 25 ...

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Differences in trunk and lower extremity muscle activity during squatting exercise with and without hammer swing

Perturbation exercises enhance lower limb and trunk muscles, and adding swing perturbation while loading during exercise might improve muscle activation or strength. This study aimed to check variations in trunk and lower limb muscle activity during conventional isometric squats, and whether it will change with or without swing using the Hammerobics-synchronized squat method. Twelve healthy men participated in this study. Activities for the abductor hallucis, tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior, ...

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Judo training program improves brain and muscle function and elevates the peripheral BDNF concentration among the elderly

Programmed exercise interventions modulating both physical fitness and cognitive functions have become a promising tool to support healthy aging. The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of a 12-week judo training (JEX) on cognitive processing and muscle function among the elderly. Forty participants were divided into two groups: the JEX group and the control group (CTL). Before and after 12-week of JEX, participants performed a battery of physiological and psychological tests. The ...

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R-spondin3 is a myokine that differentiates myoblasts to type I fibres

Muscle fibres are broadly categorised into types I and II; the fibre-type ratio determines the contractile and metabolic properties of skeletal muscle tissue. The maintenance of type I fibres is essential for the prevention of obesity and the treatment of muscle atrophy caused by type 2 diabetes or unloading. Some reports suggest that myokines are related to muscle fibre type determination. We thus explored whether a myokine determines whether satellite cells differentiate to type I fibres. By examining ...

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Mitochondrial proteostasis stress in muscle drives a long-range protective response to alleviate dietary obesity independently of ATF4

Mitochondrial quality in skeletal muscle is crucial for maintaining energy homeostasis during metabolic stresses. However, how muscle mitochondrial quality is controlled and its physiological impacts remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that mitoprotease LONP1 is essential for preserving muscle mitochondrial proteostasis and systemic metabolic homeostasis. Skeletal muscle–specific deletion of Lon protease homolog, mitochondrial (LONP1) impaired mitochondrial protein turnover, leading to muscle ...

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Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Expression of Adiponectin and Liver Receptor Homolog-1 With Weight Loss and Aerobic Exercise

Context: Adiponectin is an adipokine mainly secreted by adipocytes that regulates the metabolism of lipids and glucose. Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1), also named NR5A2, is a nuclear receptor that regulates lipid metabolism and homeostasis. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare adiponectin and LRH-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in adipose tissue and LRH-1 expression in skeletal muscle between men and women at baseline and to study the effects of aerobic exercise (AEX) training ...

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Exercise-induced FNDC5/irisin protects nucleus pulposus cells against senescence and apoptosis by activating autophagy

Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is a major cause of low back pain (LBP), and excessive senescence and apoptosis of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells are major pathological changes in IVDD. Physical exercise could effectively delay the process of intervertebral disc degeneration; however, its mechanism is still largely unknown. Irisin is an exercise-induced myokine released upon cleavage of the membrane-bound precursor protein fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5), and its levels ...

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Effects of different exercise intensities on prefrontal activity during a dual task

The effects of physical exercise on cognitive tasks have been investigated. However, it is unclear how different exercise intensities affect the neural activity. In this study, we investigated the neural activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) by varying the exercise intensity while participants performed a dual task (DT). Twenty healthy young adults performed serial subtraction while driving a cycle ergometer. Exercise intensity was set to one of three levels: low, moderate, or high intensity. We ...

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The crosstalk between endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells aggravates high phosphorus-induced arterial calcification

Arterial calcification is highly prevalent, particularly in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is the critical process for the development of arterial calcification. However, the detailed mechanism of VSMCs calcification remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of exosomes (Exos) derived from endothelial cells (ECs) in arterial calcification and its potential mechanisms in ESRD. Accelerated VSMCs calcification ...

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The role of irisin in metabolic flexibility: Beyond adipose tissue browning

Metabolic flexibility is the ability to adapt to physiological and environmental changes in metabolic demand. Irisin was originally discovered as an exercise-induced myokine involved in fat browning. In this review, we summarize emerging evidence for the roles of irisin in regulating glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, neuroplasticity and satiety in central nervous system, β cell function and insulin secretion in the pancreas, bone remodeling, and adipose tissue function, ...

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Genetic variation of putative myokine signaling is dominated by biological sex and sex hormones

Skeletal muscle plays an integral role in coordinating physiological homeostasis, where signaling to other tissues via myokines allows for coordination of complex processes. Here, we aimed to leverage natural genetic correlation structure of gene expression both within and across tissues to understand how muscle interacts with metabolic tissues. Specifically, we performed a survey of genetic correlations focused on myokine gene regulation, muscle cell composition, cross-tissue signaling, and interactions ...

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Adipocyte lysoplasmalogenase TMEM86A regulates plasmalogen homeostasis and protein kinase A-dependent energy metabolism

Dysregulation of adipose tissue plasmalogen metabolism is associated with obesity-related metabolic diseases. We report that feeding mice a high-fat diet reduces adipose tissue lysoplasmalogen levels and increases transmembrane protein 86 A (TMEM86A), a putative lysoplasmalogenase. Untargeted lipidomic analysis demonstrates that adipocyte-specific TMEM86A-knockout (AKO) increases lysoplasmalogen content in adipose tissue, including plasmenyl lysophosphatidylethanolamine 18:0 (LPE P-18:0). ...

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Maternal and perinatal obesity induce bronchial obstruction and pulmonary hypertension via IL-6-FoxO1-axis in later life

Obesity is a pre-disposing condition for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Accumulating evidence suggests that metabolic influences during development can determine chronic lung diseases (CLD). We demonstrate that maternal obesity causes early metabolic disorder in the offspring. Here, interleukin-6 induced bronchial and microvascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) hyperproliferation and increased airway and pulmonary vascular resistance. The key anti-proliferative ...

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Ribonucleotide reductase M2B in the myofibers modulates stem cell fate in skeletal muscle

The balance among quiescence, differentiation, and self-renewal of skeletal muscle stem cells (MuSCs) is tightly regulated by their intrinsic and extrinsic properties from the niche. How the niche controls MuSC fate remains unclear. Ribonucleotide reductase M2B (Rrm2b) modulates MuSC quiescence/differentiation in muscle in response to injury. Rrm2b knockout in myofibers, but not in MuSCs, led to weakness of muscles, such as a loss of muscle mass and strength. After muscle injury, damaged myofibers ...

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Rare loss of function variants in the hepatokine gene INHBE protect from abdominal obesity

Identifying genetic variants associated with lower waist-to-hip ratio can reveal new therapeutic targets for abdominal obesity. We use exome sequences from 362,679 individuals to identify genes associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRadjBMI), a surrogate for abdominal fat that is causally linked to type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. Predicted loss of function (pLOF) variants in INHBE associate with lower WHRadjBMI and this association replicates in data from AMP-T2D-GENES. ...

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Adipose Tissue Myeloid-Lineage Neuroimmune Cells Express Genes Important for Neural Plasticity and Regulate Adipose Innervation

Peripheral nerves allow a bidirectional communication between brain and adipose tissues, and many studies have clearly demonstrated that a loss of the adipose nerve supply results in tissue dysfunction and metabolic dysregulation. Neuroimmune cells closely associate with nerves in many tissues, including subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT). However, in scWAT, their functions beyond degrading norepinephrine in an obese state remain largely unexplored. We previously reported that a myeloid-lineage ...

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Neprilysins regulate muscle contraction and heart function via cleavage of SERCA-inhibitory micropeptides

Muscle contraction depends on strictly controlled Ca2+ transients within myocytes. A major player maintaining these transients is the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase, SERCA. Activity of SERCA is regulated by binding of micropeptides and impaired expression or function of these peptides results in cardiomyopathy. To date, it is not known how homeostasis or turnover of the micropeptides is regulated. Herein, we find that the Drosophila endopeptidase Neprilysin 4 hydrolyzes SERCA-inhibitory ...

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Therapeutic exercise to improve motor function among children with Down Syndrome aged 0 to 3 years: a systematic literature review and meta‑analysis

The effects and the prescription parameters of therapeutic exercise are not clear. For this reason, is needed to determine the effect of therapeutic exercises on the motor function of children with Down Syndrome (DS) aged 0 to 3 years. The present study is systematic review and meta-analysis of effectiveness outcomes in this population: gait, balance, motor development, fine motor skills, and executive functions. The databases of PubMed, PEDro, EMBASE, SCIELO, Lilacs, Cochrane library were searched ...

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A single session of exercise reduces blood pressure reactivity to stress: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Stressful situations are common in everyday life and disturb homeostasis. So, an exercise session is a strategy to mitigate blood pressure (BP) peaks in response to stress (i.e., BP reactivity), decreasing the cardiovascular risk. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis that aims to verify the effects of a single session of physical exercises on BP reactivity to stress in adults. The searches were performed in digital databases (MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, and PsycInfo) and 29 studies ...

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Coagulation factors promote brown adipose tissue dysfunction and abnormal systemic metabolism in obesity

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has a role in maintaining systemic metabolic health in rodents and humans. Here, we show that metabolic stress induces BAT to produce coagulation factors, which then—together with molecules derived from the circulation—promote BAT dysfunction and systemic glucose intolerance. When mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), the levels of tissue factor, coagulation Factor VII (FVII), activated coagulation Factor X (FXa), and protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) expression ...

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Antidepressant Effect of Intermittent Long-Term Systemic Administration of Irisin in Mice

Depression is a psychiatric disorder increasingly diffused worldwide. Evidence suggests that irisin, a myokine secreted by contracting muscle, mediates beneficial effects on several targets, including the brain. Here, the potential antidepressant properties of long-term intermittent systemic irisin administration (100 µg/kg/weekly for 1 month) were evaluated in mice by the Tail Suspension Test (TST), Forced Swim Test (FST), and Open Field Test (OFT). Furthermore, to deepen the molecular pathways ...

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A pilot investigation of genetic and epigenetic variation of FKBP5 and response to exercise intervention in African women with obesity

We investigated gluteal (GSAT) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) DNA methylation of FKBP5 in response to a 12-week intervention in African women with obesity, as well as the effect of the rs1360780 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on FKBP5 methylation, gene expression and post-exercise training adaptations in obesity and metabolic related parameters. Exercise (n = 19) participants underwent 12-weeks of supervised aerobic and resistance training while controls (n = 12) ...

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Adipose tissue thermogenesis by calcium futile cycling

Brown and beige adipocytes produce heat and control systemic energy via non-shivering thermogenesis (NST). Historically, thermogenesis in brown and beige adipocytes was thought to be exclusively through a mitochondria-localized protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). However, recent studies identified UCP1-independent thermogenic mechanisms in adipocytes. Importantly, UCP1-independent pathways significantly contribute to systemic energy and glucose homeostasis. The finding of UCP1-independent mechanisms ...

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Acute Beetroot Juice Supplementation Enhances Intermittent Running Performance but Does Not Reduce Oxygen Cost of Exercise among Recreational Adults

Nitrate (NO3−) supplementation has been reported to enhance intermittent exercise performance; however, its impact on oxygen (O2) cost during intermittent running exercise is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess if acute NO3− supplementation would elicit performance benefits in recreationally active individuals during the Yo–Yo intermittent recovery level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) test, with its potential benefit on O2 consumption (VO2), in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, ...

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Effects of Strength Training on Body Fat in Children and Adolescents with Overweight and Obesity: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

Childhood overweight and obesity represent a growing public health problem worldwide. Since the 1980s, the global prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence has increased by 47%. The promotion of exercise is an important intervention to reduce the physical damage of obesity. The meta-analysis was conducted in accordance with the general guidelines for the reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). The PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar databases ...

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FKBP11 rewires UPR signaling to promote glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes and obesity

Chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and sustained activation of unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes in obesity. UPR signaling is a complex signaling pathway, which is still being explored in many different cellular processes. Here, we demonstrate that FK506-binding protein 11 (FKBP11), which is transcriptionally regulated by XBP1s, is severely reduced in the livers of obese mice. Restoring hepatic FKBP11 expression in obese mice initiates ...

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The different effects of intramuscularly-injected lactate on white and brown adipose tissue in vivo

Background: Lactate is an important product of glycolysis metabolism during exercise and has long been recognized as an important metabolic signaling molecule involved in inhibiting lipolysis and promoting lipogenesis, which consequently leads to regulated adipose tissue metabolism. However, recent studies have shown that lactate promotes the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT), which induces heat production and energy expenditure and ultimately causes weight loss. These studies assessing the ...

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Modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress via sulforaphane-mediated AMPK upregulation against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major health concern. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunctions may be targeted to prevent the progress of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Sulforaphane (SFN), a sulfur-containing compound that is abundant in broccoli florets, seeds, and sprouts, has been reported to have beneficial effects on attenuating metabolic diseases. In light of this, the present study was designed to elucidate the mechanisms by which SFN ameliorated ...

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Severe Hyperprolactinemia Promotes Brown Adipose Tissue Whitening and Aggravates High Fat Diet Induced Metabolic Imbalance

Background: The association of high serum prolactin and increased body weight is positive but controversial, therefore we hypothesized that additional factors such as diets and the impact of prolactin on brown adipose tissue may condition its metabolic effects. Methods: We used LacDrd2KO females with lifelong severe hyperprolactinemia due dopamine-D2 receptor deletion from lactotropes, and slow onset of metabolic disturbances, and compared them to their respective controls (Drd2 loxP/loxP). Food ...

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Association of the “Weekend Warrior” and Other Leisure-time Physical Activity Patterns With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: A Nationwide Cohort Study

Importance: It is unclear whether the weekly recommended amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) has the same benefits for mortality risk when activity sessions are spread throughout the week vs concentrated in fewer days. Objective: To examine the association of weekend warrior and other patterns of leisure-time physical activity with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This large nationwide prospective cohort study included 350 978 adults ...

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Effects of Fatigue on Postural Sway and Electromyography Modulation in Young Expert Acrobatic Gymnasts and Healthy Non-trained Controls During Unipedal Stance

This study investigated whether expert acrobatic gymnasts respond differentially than their non-trained counterparts during a single-legged stance task performed before and after a protocol designed to induce fatigue in the ankle plantarflexor muscles in terms of (a) postural steadiness and (b) electromyography (EMG) activation. We hypothesized that neuromuscular adaptation due to training would lead to different behavior of center of pressure (COP) and EMG quantifiers after fatigue. Twenty eight ...

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Sit to stand muscle power reference values and their association with adverse events in Colombian older adults

Recently, a valid method to assess lower-body muscle power based on a sit-to-stand field test (STS) has been published. Our study aimed to describe lower-body muscle power in older individuals aged ≥ 60 years and examine the relationship of muscle weakness with adverse events according to gender- and age-specific muscle weakness cut-off points. A total of 3689 Colombian older adults (57.6% women, age 69.1 ± 6.9 years) from the 2015 Survey on Health, Well-Being, ...

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No effect of five days of bed rest or short-term resistance exercie prehabilitation on markers of skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and dynamics in older adults

Bed rest (BR) results in significant impairments in skeletal muscle metabolism. Mitochondrial metabolism is reportedly highly sensitive to disuse, with dysregulated fission-fusion events and impaired oxidative function previously reported. The effects of clinically relevant short-term BR (≤5 days) on mitochondrial protein expression are presently unclear, as are the effects of exercise prehabilitation as a potential counteractive intervention. The present study examined the effects of a 5-day ...

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Mitigating sarcoplasmic reticulum stress limits disuse-induced muscle loss in hindlimb unloaded mice

Muscle disuse in the hindlimb unloaded (HU) mice causes significant atrophy and weakness. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms driving disuse-muscle atrophy remain elusive. We investigated the potential contribution of proteins dysregulation by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), a condition called SR stress, to muscle loss during HU. Male, c57BL/6j mice were assigned to ground-based controls or HU groups treated with vehicle or 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), a potent inhibitor of SR stress, once a ...

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Irisin Attenuates Muscle Impairment during Bed Rest through Muscle-Adipose Tissue Crosstalk

The detrimental effect of physical inactivity on muscle characteristics are well known. Irisin, an exercise-induced myokine cleaved from membrane protein fibronectin type III domain-containing protein-5 (FNDC5), mediates at least partially the metabolic benefits of exercise. This study aimed to assess the interplay between prolonged inactivity, circulating irisin, muscle performance, muscle fibers characteristics, as well as the FNDC5 gene expression (FNDC5ge) in muscle and adipose tissue among healthy ...

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Molecular Basis of Irisin Regulating the Effects of Exercise on Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance is recognized as one major feature of metabolic syndrome, and frequently emerges as a difficult problem encountered during long-term pharmacological treatment of diabetes. Insulin resistance often causes organs or tissues, such as skeletal muscle, adipose, and liver, to become less responsive or resistant to insulin. Exercise can promote the physiological function of those organs and tissues and benefits insulin action via increasing insulin receptor sensitivity, glucose uptake, ...

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Characterization of Redox Environment and Tryptophan Catabolism through Kynurenine Pathway in Military Divers’ and Swimmers’ Serum Samples

Endurance and resistance exercises, alone or in combination, induce metabolic changes that affect tryptophan (Trp) catabolism. The kynurenine pathway (KP) is the main route of Trp degradation, and it is modulated by the inflammatory and redox environments. Previous studies have shown that KP metabolites work as myokines that mediate the positive systemic effects related to exercise. However, it is poorly understood how different exercise modalities and intensities impact the KP. The aim of this study ...

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Impact of Exercise and Aging on Mitochondrial Homeostasis in Skeletal Muscle: Roles of ROS and Epigenetics

Aging causes degenerative changes such as epigenetic changes and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Exercise can upregulate muscle mitochondrial homeostasis and enhance antioxidant capacity and represents an effective treatment to prevent muscle aging. Epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modifications, and microRNA expression are involved in the regulation of exercise-induced adaptive changes in muscle mitochondria. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an ...

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The Potential Role of Myokines/Hepatokines in the Progression of Neuronal Damage in Streptozotocin and High-Fat Diet-Induced Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Mice

Background: Diabetes is highly prevalent, and the number of patients with diabetic sarcopenia and cognitive impairment has grown, leading to decreased quality of life. Although the exact mechanisms between sarcopenia and cognitive impairment have not been elucidated, it is speculated that muscle and liver-derived mediators might contribute to brain function. This study examined the molecular mechanisms associated with muscle-brain interaction accompanied by insulin resistance (IR) caused by aberrant ...

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Tryptophan recovery index as a new biomarker for fitness

The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and maximal power output (Pmax) are commonly used parameters to evaluate the endurance fitness status. A connection between exercise and the kynurenine pathway (KP), which describes the metabolism of unused tryptophan, has already been reported. However, a potential association of the KP with endurance fitness levels remains unknown. In this study, adolescent competitive athletes performed an exhaustive incremental exercise test. Blood samples were taken before, ...

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Effects of tongue strengthening exercises on tongue muscle strength: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Tongue strengthening exercise (TSE) has been proposed as an intervention to increase tongue strength and improve swallowing. However, clinical evidence of its effectiveness is lacking. In this review, seven databases were searched from inception to September 30, 2021 for randomized controlled trials that compared tongue strengths between the TSE intervention and control groups, obtained from maximal tongue elevation peak force in kilopascals (kPa). The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used for quality ...

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Comprehensive multi-cohort transcriptional meta-analysis of muscle diseases identifies a signature of disease severity

Muscle diseases share common pathological features suggesting common underlying mechanisms. We hypothesized there is a common set of genes dysregulated across muscle diseases compared to healthy muscle and that these genes correlate with severity of muscle disease. We performed meta-analysis of transcriptional profiles of muscle biopsies from human muscle diseases and healthy controls. Studies obtained from public microarray repositories fulfilling quality criteria were divided into six categories: ...

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Exercise-induced CITED4 expression is necessary for regional remodeling of cardiac microstructural tissue helicity

Both exercise-induced molecular mechanisms and physiological cardiac remodeling have been previously studied on a whole heart level. However, the regional microstructural tissue effects of these molecular mechanisms in the heart have yet to be spatially linked and further elucidated. We show in exercised mice that the expression of CITED4, a transcriptional co-regulator necessary for cardioprotection, is regionally heterogenous in the heart with preferential significant increases in the lateral wall ...

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Effects of combined physical exercise on plasma lipid variables, paraoxonase 1 activity, and inflammation parameters in adults with obesity: a randomized clinical trial

Objective: We aimed to investigate whether combined physical exercise may affect plasma lipid variables, paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity, and inflammation parameters in adults with obesity. Methods: Thirty-six participants were recruited to complete the study protocol. The mean age was 37 ± 1 years, and the baseline body mass index was 33.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2. Participants were allocated to the control group (CG) and the exercise group (EG). The EG performed three ...

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Effects of exercise training on brain metabolism and cognitive functioning in sleep apnea

Impaired glucose metabolism reflects neuronal/synaptic dysfunction and cognitive function decline in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The study investigated the extent to which exercise training (ET) improves cerebral metabolic glucose rate (CMRgl) and cognitive function in patients with OSA. Patients with moderate to severe OSA were randomly assigned to ET (3 times/week, n = 23) or no intervention (control, n = 24). Echocardiography and apolipoprotein ε4 ...

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Circulating nitrate-nitrite reduces oxygen uptake for improving resistance exercise performance after rest time in well-trained CrossFit athletes

This study aimed to determine the effects of circulating nitrate plus nitrite (NOx) concentrations on resistance exercise performance, VO2 and biomarkers of muscle damage. Eleven well-trained male CrossFit athletes (29.2 ± 3.7 years, 78.9 ± 5.4 kg, 175.1 ± 6.3 cm) carried out a resistance exercise test after drinking 140 mL of beetroot juice (BJ) or placebo. The test consisted of repeating the same resistance exercise routine twice: wall ...

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Neurogenic effects of rotarod walking exercise in subventricular zone, subgranular zone, and substantia nigra in MPTP-induced Parkinson’s disease mice

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s disease, and its incidence is predicted to increase worldwide. Striatal dopamine depletion caused by substantia nigra (SN) degeneration is a pathological hallmark of PD and is strongly associated with cardinal motor and non-motor symptoms. Previous studies have reported that exercise increases neuroplasticity and promotes neurorestoration by increasing neurotrophic factors and synaptic strength ...

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Age-dependent impact of two exercise training regimens on genomic and metabolic remodeling in skeletal muscle and liver of male mice

Skeletal muscle adapts to different exercise training modalities with age; however, the impact of both variables at the systemic and tissue levels is not fully understood. Here, adult and old C57BL/6 male mice were assigned to one of three groups: sedentary, daily high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT), or moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) for 4 weeks, compatible with the older group’s exercise capacity. Improvements in body composition, fasting blood glucose, and muscle ...

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Reduced and delayed myelination and volume of corpus callosum in an animal model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders partially benefit from voluntary exercise

1 in 20 live births in the United States is affected by prenatal alcohol exposure annually, creating a major public health crisis. The teratogenic impact of alcohol on physical growth, neurodevelopment, and behavior is extensive, together resulting in clinical disorders which fall under the umbrella term of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). FASD-related impairments to executive function and perceptual learning are prevalent among affected youth and are linked to disruptions to corpus callosum ...

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Effect of different types of exercise in adult subjects with fibromyalgia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials

Exercise has been recommended for fibromyalgia treatment. However, doubts related to exercise benefits remain unclear. The objective of this study was to summarise, through a systematic review with meta-analysis, the available evidence on the effects of aerobic, resistance and stretching exercise on pain, depression, and quality of life. Search was performed using electronic databases Pubmed and Cochrane Library. Studies with interventions based on aerobic exercise, resistance exercise and stretching ...

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Effect of modified Total Body Recumbent Stepper training on exercise capacity and thioredoxin in COPD: a randomized clinical trial

Exercise intolerance is one of the major symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exercise training can benefit COPD patients, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The modified Total Body Recumbent Stepper (TBRS, Nustep-T4) can benefit patients with stroke, spinal cord injury and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nevertheless, the effect of TBRS training alone on pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in COPD patients remains largely unknown. We aimed to explore the effect of TBRS training ...

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Effects of different inspiratory muscle warm-up loads on mechanical, physiological and muscle oxygenation responses during high-intensity running and recovery

Inspiratory muscle warm-up (IMW) has been used as a resource to enhance exercises and sports performance. However, there is a lack of studies in the literature addressing the effects of different IMW loads (especially in combination with a shorter and applicable protocol) on high-intensity running and recovery phase. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of three different IMW loads using a shorter protocol on mechanical, physiological and muscle oxygenation responses during and after ...

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Muscle function during single leg landing

Landing manoeuvres are an integral task for humans, especially in the context of sporting activities. Such tasks often involve landing on one leg which requires the coordination of multiple muscles in order to effectively dissipate kinetic energy. However, no prior studies have provided a detailed description of the strategy used by the major lower limb muscles to perform single-leg landing. The purpose of the present study was to understand how humans coordinate their lower limb muscles during a ...

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Differential Impact of Biological and Behavioral Traits on Post-exercise Energy Intake in Men and Women

Objectives: The energy intake response to exercise is highly variable and energy (over-) compensation via increased post-exercise energy intake occurs in some individuals but not others. In explorative analyses, we aimed to identify biological and behavioral predictors of post-exercise ad libitum energy intake and whether these predictors differ from ad libitum energy intake after rest. Methods: In a randomized crossover design, 57 healthy participants (21.7 ± 2.5 y; 23.7 ± 2.3 kg/m2, ...

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Loss of adipose TET proteins enhances β-adrenergic responses and protects against obesity by epigenetic regulation of β3-AR expression

β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling plays predominant roles in modulating energy expenditure by triggering lipolysis and thermogenesis in adipose tissue, thereby conferring obesity resistance. Obesity is associated with diminished β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) expression and decreased β-adrenergic responses, but the molecular mechanism coupling nutrient overload to catecholamine resistance remains poorly defined. Ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins are dioxygenases ...

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Angiotensin II Inhibits Insulin Receptor Signaling in Adipose Cells

Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a critical regulator of insulin signaling in the cardiovascular system and metabolic tissues. However, in adipose cells, the regulatory role of Ang II on insulin actions remains to be elucidated. The effect of Ang II on insulin-induced insulin receptor (IR) phosphorylation, Akt activation, and glucose uptake was examined in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In these cells, Ang II specifically inhibited insulin-stimulated IR and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) tyrosine-phosphorylation, ...

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Physical exercise and the functions of microRNAs

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control RNA translation and are a class of small, tissue-specific, non-protein-coding RNAs that maintain cellular homeostasis through negative gene regulation. Maintenance of the physiological environment depends on the proper control of miRNA expression, as these molecules influence almost all genetic pathways, from the cell cycle checkpoint to cell proliferation and apoptosis, with a wide range of target genes. Dysregulation of the expression of miRNAs is correlated with several ...

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An exercise-inducible metabolite that suppresses feeding and obesity

Exercise confers protection against obesity, type 2 diabetes and other cardiometabolic diseases. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate the metabolic benefits of physical activity remain unclear6. Here we show that exercise stimulates the production of N-lactoyl-phenylalanine (Lac-Phe), a blood-borne signalling metabolite that suppresses feeding and obesity. The biosynthesis of Lac-Phe from lactate and phenylalanine occurs in CNDP2+ cells, including macrophages, monocytes ...

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Exercise protects intestinal epithelial barrier from high fat diet- induced permeabilization through SESN2/AMPKα1/HIF-1α signaling

Over-nutrition and a sedentary lifestyle are associated with increased intestinal permeability. This condition promotes obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Sestrin2 (SESN2) is a stress-inducible protein thought to promote the survival and recovery of epithelial cells and act as a positive regulator in exercise-induced improvements of glycolipid metabolism. Here we aimed to test the hypothesis that chronic exercise can protect intestinal barrier function against high-fat diet induced permeabilization ...

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Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma metabolomics of acute endurance exercise

Metabolomics has emerged as a powerful new tool in precision medicine. No studies have yet been published on the metabolomic changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) produced by acute endurance exercise. CSF and plasma were collected from 19 young active adults (13 males and 6 females) before and 60 min after a 90-min monitored outdoor run. The median age, BMI, and VO2 max of subjects was 25 years (IQR 22–31), 23.2 kg/m2 (IQR 21.7–24.5), and 47 ml/kg/min (IQR 38–51), respectively. ...

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Stubborn Exercise Responders–Where to Next?

There is a wide variance in the magnitude of physiological adaptations after resistance or endurance training. The incidence of “non” or “poor” responders to training has been reported to represent as high as 40% of the project’s sample. However, the incidence of poor responders to training can be ameliorated with manipulation of either the training frequency, intensity, type and duration. Additionally, global non-response to cardio-respiratory fitness training is eliminated ...

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Effects of Exercise on Extracellular Vesicles in Patients with Metabolic Dysfunction: a Systematic Review

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise on extracellular vesicles (EVs) in patients with metabolic dysfunction. The literatures were searched until Apr 28, 2022, and 16 studies that met inclusion criteria were included in this review. The results showed that the concentrations of platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (PEVs) and endothelial cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EEVs) decreased after long-term exercise, especially for CD62E+ EEVs and CD105+ EEVs. Simultaneously, ...

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Effects of exercise intensity and duration at a predetermined exercise volume on executive function among Apolipoprotein E (APOE)-ɛ4 carriers

Emerging evidence indicates that acute exercise improves executive function, but its effects on higher-order executive functioning skills among people with a risk of Alzheimer’s disease are not well understood. This study addressed the effects of acute exercise on the planning dimension of executive function among late middle-age adults who carried Apolipoprotein (APOE)-ɛ4. Exercise volume was kept constant, but exercise intensity and duration were manipulated. Eighteen adults in the age range ...

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Downregulation of peripheral lipopolysaccharide binding protein impacts on perigonadal adipose tissue only in female mice

Background and aims: The sexual dimorphism in fat-mass distribution and circulating leptin and insulin levels is well known, influencing the progression of obesity-associated metabolic disease. Here, we aimed to investigate the possible role of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) in this sexual dimorphism. Methods: The relationship between plasma LBP and fat mass was evaluated in 145 subjects. The effects of Lbp downregulation, using lipid encapsulated unlocked nucleomonomer agent containing ...

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Severe Muscle Deconditioning Triggers Early Extracellular Matrix Remodeling and Resident Stem Cell Differentiation into Adipocytes in Healthy Men

Besides the loss of muscle mass and strength, increased intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) is now a well-recognized consequence of muscle deconditioning as experienced in prolonged microgravity. IMAT content may alter the muscle stem cell microenvironment. We hypothesized that extracellular matrix structure alterations and microenvironment remodeling induced by fast and severe muscle disuse could modulate fibro-adipogenic progenitor fate and behavior. We used the dry immersion (DI) model that rapidly ...

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Factors that Moderate the Effect of Nitrate Ingestion On Exercise Performance in Adults: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analyses and Meta-Regressions

To identify how variables such as exercise condition, supplementation strategy, participant characteristics and demographics, and practices that control oral microbiota diversity could modify the effect of inorganic nitrate ingestion (as nitrate salt supplements, beetroot juice, and nitrate-rich vegetables) on exercise performance, we conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis. Studies were identified in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Eligibility criteria included randomized controlled ...

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Duration of an acute moderate-intensity exercise session affects approach bias toward high-calorie food among individuals with obesity

Obesity is partly driven by unhealthy eating behaviors underpinned by an approach bias toward high-calorie food. Although exercise is a useful strategy for weight loss among individuals with obesity, whether exercise modulates this approach bias is unclear. This study assessed whether the duration of an acute moderate-intensity exercise altered the approach bias toward high-calorie food among individuals with obesity. In total, 24 individuals with obesity were included in this study with a randomized, ...

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Deletion of GPR30 Drives the Activation of Mitochondrial Uncoupling Respiration to Induce Adipose Thermogenesis in Female Mice

Thermogenic adipocytes possess a promising approach to combat obesity with its capability promoting energy metabolism. We previously discovered that deletion of GPR30 (GPRKO), a presumably membrane-associated estrogen receptor, protected female mice from developing obesity, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance when challenged with a high-fat diet (HFD). In vivo, the metabolic phenotype of wild type (WT) and GPRKO female mice were measured weekly. Acute cold tolerance test was performed. Ex ...

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IL-1R-IRAKM-Slc25a1 signaling axis reprograms lipogenesis in adipocytes to promote diet-induced obesity in mice

Toll-like receptors/Interleukin-1 receptor signaling plays an important role in high-fat diet-induced adipose tissue dysfunction contributing to obesity-associated metabolic syndromes. Here, we show an unconventional IL-1R-IRAKM-Slc25a1 signaling axis in adipocytes that reprograms lipogenesis to promote diet-induced obesity. Adipocyte-specific deficiency of IRAKM reduces high-fat diet-induced body weight gain, increases whole body energy expenditure and improves insulin resistance, associated ...

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Influence of Nutritional Status and Physical Exercise on Immune Response in Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic alterations mostly related to visceral adiposity, which in turn promotes glucose intolerance and a chronic systemic inflammatory state, characterized by immune cell infiltration. Such immune system activation increases the risk of severe disease subsequent to viral infections. Strong correlations between elevated body mass index (BMI), type-2-diabetes and increased risk of hospitalization after pandemic influenza H1N1 infection have been described. ...

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The Effects of Reconditioning Exercises Following Prolonged Bed Rest on Lumbopelvic Muscle Volume and Accumulation of Paraspinal Muscle Fat

Reduced muscle size and accumulation of paraspinal muscle fat content (PFC) have been reported in lumbopelvic muscles after spaceflights and head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest. While some information is available regarding reconditioning programs on muscle atrophy recovery, the effects on the accumulation of PFC are unknown. Recently, a device (the Functional Re-adaptive Exercise Device—FRED) has been developed which aims to specifically recruit lumbopelvic muscles. This study aimed to investigate ...

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Effects of Protein Supplementation Associated with Resistance Training on Body Composition and Muscle Strength in Older Adults: A Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews with Meta-analyses

Background: There are some controversial findings regarding the benefits of combining protein supplementation with resistance training in order to optimize adaptations to training in older adults. Objective: The aim of this review was to summarize the evidence from meta-analyses assessing the effects of protein supplementation combined with resistance training on body composition and muscle strength in the older population. Methods: We included systematic reviews with meta-analyses of randomized ...

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Lifetime body mass index and grip strength at age 46 years: the 1970 British Cohort Study

Background: Ongoing rises in obesity prevalence have prompted growing concerns about potential increases in the burden of age-related musculoskeletal conditions including sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity. This is of particular concern for future generations of older adults who have lived more of their lives in an obesogenic environment than current generations of older adults. We aimed to study longitudinal associations between body mass index (BMI) and grip strength in midlife using data from a ...

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Exercise and Nutrition Strategies for Combating Sarcopenia and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Older Adults

Medical and technology development have drastically the improved quality of life and, consequently, life expectancy. Nevertheless, the more people who enter the third-age, the more geriatric syndromes expand in the elderly. Sarcopenia and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are common diseases among the elderly and the literature has extensively studied these two diseases separately. Recent evidence, however, revealed that there is a bidirectional relationship between sarcopenia and T2DM. The aims of ...

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Determinants of Dropout from and Variation in Adherence to an Exercise Intervention: The STRRIDE Randomized Trials

Purpose: This study aimed to characterize the timing and self-reported determinants of exercise dropout among sedentary adults with overweight or obesity. We also sought to explore variations in adherence among individuals who completed a 6- to 8-month structured exercise intervention. Methods: A total of 947 adults with dyslipidemia (STRRIDE I, STRRIDE AT/RT) or prediabetes (STRRIDE-PD) were enrolled to either control or to 1 of 10 exercise interventions, ranging from doses of 8 to 23 kcal·kg−1·wk−1, ...

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Effects of Physical Exercise on Cardiometabolic Biomarkers and Inflammatory Markers in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Background: The prevalence of obesity among children as well as the beneficial effects of physical exercise (PE) on weight loss has been determined by modulating the secretory factors of adipose tissue. PE has also been shown to have beneficial effects on obesity. Objective: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of physical exercise (PE) on adiponectin and other important health markers in children. Data sources: We searched 6 electronic databases ...

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Concurrent Training Promotes Greater Gains on Body Composition and Components of Physical Fitness Than Single-Mode Training (Endurance or Resistance) in Youth With Obesity

The prevalence of obesity in the pediatric population has become a major public health issue. Indeed, the dramatic increase of this epidemic causes multiple and harmful consequences, Physical activity, particularly physical exercise, remains to be the cornerstone of interventions against childhood obesity. Given the conflicting findings with reference to the relevant literature addressing the effects of exercise on adiposity and physical fitness outcomes in obese children and adolescents, the effect ...

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Circulating FGF21 vs. Stress Markers in Girls during Childhood and Adolescence, and in Their Caregivers: Intriguing Inter-Relations between Overweight/Obesity, Emotions, Behavior, and the Cared-Caregiver Relationship

Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) acts on several brain regions, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which is involved in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrelations between FGF21 and stress indices in girls, as well as in their caregivers. 78 girls, aged between 5 and 15 years, were studied; 50 of them were overweight and obese (OB) and 28 in the control group (C). Serum FGF21 and hair and diurnal ...

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Sex differences in the relationships between body composition, fat distribution, and mitochondrial energy metabolism: a pilot study

Background: Adiposity and mitochondrial dysfunction are related factors contributing to metabolic disease development. This pilot study examined whether in vivo and ex vivo indices of mitochondrial metabolism were differentially associated with body composition in males and females. Methods: Thirty-four participants including 19 females (mean 27 yr) and 15 males (mean 29 yr) had body composition assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Monocyte reserve capacity ...

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Hypothalamic NPY-Y1R Interacts with Gonadal Hormones in Protecting Female Mice against Obesity and Neuroinflammation

We previously demonstrated that Npy1rrfb mice, which carry the conditional inactivation of the Npy1r gene in forebrain principal neurons, display a sexually dimorphic phenotype, with male mice showing metabolic, hormonal and behavioral effects and females being only marginally affected. Moreover, exposure of Npy1rrfb male mice to a high-fat diet (HFD) increased body weight growth, adipose tissue, blood glucose levels and caloric intake compared to Npy1r2lox male controls. We used conditional knockout ...

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Serotonin and dopamine modulate aging in response to food odor and availability

An organism’s ability to perceive and respond to changes in its environment is crucial for its health and survival. Here we reveal how the most well-studied longevity intervention, dietary restriction, acts in-part through a cell non-autonomous signaling pathway that is inhibited by the presence of attractive smells. Using an intestinal reporter for a key gene induced by dietary restriction but suppressed by attractive smells, we identify three compounds that block food odor effects in C. elegans, ...

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Dietary oleamide attenuates obesity induced by housing mice in small cages

Physical inactivity due to prolonged sedentary behavior induces obesity. Therefore, we investigated whether housing mice in small cages to mimic sedentary behavior induced obesity and whether dietary oleamide (cis-9,10-octadeceneamide) suppressed the induced obesity. A single oral administration of oleamide (50 mg/kg) to mice resulted in the accumulation of the exogenous oleamide in abdominal visceral fat. Next, mice were housed in small cages and oleamide (50 mg/kg/d) was orally administered for ...

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Evaluating anti-obesity potential, active components, and antioxidant mechanisms of Moringa peregrina seeds extract on high-fat diet-induced obesity

There are no medical drugs that provide an acceptable weight loss with minimal adverse effects. This study evaluated the Moringa peregrina (MP) seed extract's anti-obesity effect. Twenty-four (6/each group) male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into group Ι (control), group ΙΙ (high-fat diet [HFD]), group ΙΙΙ (HFD+ MP [250 mg/kg b.wt]), and group ΙV (HFD+ MP [500 mg/kg b.wt]). MP administration significantly ameliorated body weight gains and HFD induced ...

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The effects of brewers’ spent grain on high-fat diet-induced fatty liver

Obesity drives nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study investigated the effects of dietary brewers’ spent grain (BSG) supplementation on obesity-induced NAFLD. Mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with 30% BSG (HFD30) had reduced body weight and decreased plasma total cholesterol (TC) concentrations compared with HFD-fed mice. Retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RWAT) and liver weights were reduced. Consistent with reduced hepatic triacylglycerol, TC, and non-esterified fatty ...

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β-elemene regulates M1-M2 macrophage balance through the ERK/JNK/P38 MAPK signaling pathway

Macrophages are classified into classically activated M1 macrophages and alternatively activated M2 macrophages, and the two phenotypes of macrophages are present during the development of various chronic diseases, including obesity-induced inflammation. In the present study, β-elemene, which is contained in various plant substances, is predicted to treat high-fat diet (HFD)-induced macrophage dysfunction based on the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and experimental validation. β-elemene ...

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The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction XVIII: tissue specific changes in cell size and number in response to calorie restriction

Calorie restriction (CR) without malnutrition increases the health- and lifespan of diverse taxa. The mechanism(s) behind CR are debated but may be directly linked to body composition changes that maintain energy balance. During a deficit, energy is primarily obtained from white adipose tissue (WAT; utilized) whilst other tissues remain unchanged (protected) or grow (invested) relative to body mass. The changes in mass of 6 tissues from 48 male C57BL/6 mice following 3-months graded (10, 20, 30, ...

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Proteomic analysis reveals exercise training induced remodelling of hepatokine secretion and uncovers syndecan-4 as a regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism

Objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is linked to impaired lipid metabolism and systemic insulin resistance, which is partly mediated by altered secretion of liver proteins known as hepatokines. Regular physical activity can resolve NAFLD and improve its metabolic comorbidities, however, the effects of exercise training on hepatokine secretion and the metabolic impact of exercise-regulated hepatokines in NAFLD remain unresolved. Herein, we examined the effect of endurance exercise ...

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Orosomucoid: a promising biomarker for the assessment of exercise-induced fatigue triggered by basic combat training

Background: Orosomucoid (ORM) is a positive acute phase protein verified to be upregulated in various forms of exercise-induced fatigued (EIF) rodents. However, its association with EIF among human beings remained unknown. This study aimed to explore the association between serum ORM and EIF triggered by military basic combat training (BCT). Methods: The degree of EIF were measured by Borg’s Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale (Borg-RPE-Scale®) as RPE score after BCT. Fifty-three male recruits ...

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Modeling human heterogeneity of obesity with diversity outbred mice reveals a fat mass-dependent therapeutic window for resolvin E1

Resolvin E1 (RvE1), a specialized pro-resolving mediator (SPM), improves glucose homeostasis in inbred mouse models of obesity. However, an impediment toward translation is that obesity is a highly heterogenous disease in which individuals will respond very differently to interventions such as RvE1. Thus, there is a need to study SPMs in the context of modeling the heterogeneity of obesity that is observed in humans. We investigated how RvE1 controls the concentration of key circulating metabolic ...

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Effects of Aerobic Training on Brain Plasticity in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

The purpose of this study was to systematically review to find if aerobic exercise compared to no exercise or any other intervention affects brain plasticity among people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Searches were conducted in the Scopus, SciELO, PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases. The included studies were randomized control trials (RCTs) written in English comprising individuals with MCI that evaluated the effects of aerobic training on brain-derived neurotrophic ...

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The effect of aerobic exercise on tumour blood delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Purpose: Tumour blood vessels are structurally and functionally abnormal, resulting in areas of hypoxia and heterogeneous blood supply. Aerobic exercise may modulate tumour blood flow and normalise the tumour microenvironment to improve chemotherapy delivery. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effect of the aerobic exercise mode on tumour hypoxia, vascularisation and blood flow. Methods: Four online databases were searched. Preclinical and clinical randomised controlled ...

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Changes in adiponectin: leptin ratio among older adults with obesity following a 12-month exercise and diet intervention

Background: Excess adiposity is characterized by alterations in adipokine secretion such that circulating leptin concentrations are increased with reductions in adiponectin. An emerging biomarker for the assessment of this adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction is the adiponectin:leptin (AL) ratio. A low AL ratio may be suggestive of dysfunctional AT and, consequently, a heightened cardiometabolic disease risk. This ancillary study investigated the relationship between the AL ratio and cardiometabolic health ...

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Renal protection induced by physical exercise may be mediated by the irisin/AMPK axis in diabetic nephropathy

In patients with diabetes, it has been suggested that physical exercise may reduce albuminuria and the progression of renal disease. However, the molecular mechanism by which physical exercise protects the kidney in diabetes remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the contribution of muscle irisin secretion induced by aerobic physical exercise with the subsequent activation of AMPK for kidney protection under diabetic conditions. Aerobic physical exercise in rats ...

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Sprint Interval Exercise Improves Cognitive Performance Unrelated to Postprandial Glucose Fluctuations at Different Levels of Normobaric Hypoxia

Objective: The aim of our study was to examine cognition response to sprint interval exercise (SIE) against different levels of hypoxia. Research design and methods: 26 recreational active males performed SIE (20 × 6 s of all-out cycling bouts, 15 s of passive recovery) under normoxia (FIO2: 0.209), moderate hypoxia (FIO2: 0.154), and severe hypoxia (FIO2: 0.112) in a single-blinded crossover design. Cognitive function and blood glucose were assessed before and after 0, 10, 30, and 60 min of ...

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Effects of Different Intensity Exercise on the Patients of Oxidative Stress Factors and Glycemic Control Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

This study’s major purpose was to examine the impact of two various exercise intensities on glucagon-like peptide-1 and endoplasmic reticulum stress in teenagers with type 2 diabetes. Twenty teenagers with T2DM were recruited in the trial and randomly assigned to one of two groups: HIT (n = 10) or LIT (n = 10). At a heart rate of less than 45 percent, the low-intensity intense exercise group participated in aerobic activity training. Interval training with a heart ...

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Maternal secretin ameliorates obesity by promoting white adipose tissue browning in offspring

Our knowledge of the coordination of intergenerational inheritance and offspring metabolic reprogramming by gastrointestinal endocrine factors is largely unknown. Here, we showed that secretin (SCT), a brain-gut peptide, is downregulated by overnutrition in pregnant mice and women. More importantly, genetic loss of SCT in the maternal gut results in undesirable phenotypes developed in offspring including enhanced high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and attenuated browning of inguinal white adipose ...

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Grandmaternal exercise improves metabolic health of second-generation offspring

Objective: A major factor in the growing world-wide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is the increased risk of transmission of metabolic disease from obese mothers to both first (F1) and second (F2) generation offspring. Fortunately, recent pre-clinical studies demonstrate that exercise before and during pregnancy improves F1 metabolic health, providing a potential means to disrupt this cycle of disease. Whether the beneficial effects of maternal exercise can also be transmitted to the F2 generation ...

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Associations of handgrip strength with morbidity and all-cause mortality of cardiometabolic multimorbidity

Background: Cardiometabolic multimorbidity (CM) is an increasing public health and clinical concern. However, predictors for the development and prognosis of CM are poorly understood. The aims of this study were to investigate the relation between handgrip strength (HGS) and the risk of CM and to examine the association of HGS with all-cause mortality risk among patients with CM. Methods: This prospective cohort study involved 493,774 participants from the UK Biobank. CM was defined as the simultaneous ...

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Functional yogurt fermented by two-probiotics regulates blood lipid and weight in a high-fat diet mouse model

We investigated the blood lipid regulation effects and mechanism of a functional Natto yogurt in a high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia mouse model. Natto yogurt was characteristically fermented by Bacillus natto and Lactobacillus plantarum with milk-soy dual protein as substrates. After 5 weeks of Natto yogurt consumption, the body weight, fat, and liver weight of mice were significantly improved, while serum levels of TG, TC, LDL, ALT, TBIL, and TBA were reduced. Natto yogurt significantly ...

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Omega-3 fatty acid epoxides produced by PAF-AH2 in mast cells regulate pulmonary vascular remodeling

Pulmonary hypertension is a fatal rare disease that causes right heart failure by elevated pulmonary arterial resistance. There is an unmet medical need for the development of therapeutics focusing on the pulmonary vascular remodeling. Bioactive lipids produced by perivascular inflammatory cells might modulate the vascular remodeling. Here, we show that ω-3 fatty acid-derived epoxides (ω-3 epoxides) released from mast cells by PAF-AH2, an oxidized phospholipid-selective phospholipase ...

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Changes in biceps brachii muscle hardness assessed by a push-in meter and strain elastography after eccentric versus concentric contractions

Changes in biceps brachii muscle hardness assessed by a push-in meter (PM) and strain elastography (SE) were compared between eccentric (ECC) and concentric contractions (CON) of the elbow flexors to test the hypothesis that muscle hardness would increase greater after ECC. Ten men performed 5 sets of 10 ECC with their non-dominant arms and 5 sets of 10 CON with their dominant arms using a dumbbell corresponding to 50% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) force at 90º elbow flexion. ...

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Skeletal muscle-specific overexpression of miR-486 limits mammary tumor-induced skeletal muscle functional limitations

miR-486 is a myogenic microRNA, and its reduced skeletal muscle expression is observed in muscular dystrophy. Transgenic overexpression of miR-486 using muscle creatine kinase promoter (MCK-miR-486) partially rescues muscular dystrophy phenotype. We had previously demonstrated reduced circulating and skeletal muscle miR-486 levels with accompanying skeletal muscle defects in mammary tumor models. To determine whether skeletal muscle miR-486 is functionally similar in dystrophies and cancer, we performed ...

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β-Aminoisobutyric acid, L-BAIBA, protects PC12 cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis via activation of the AMPK and PI3K/Akt pathway

β-Aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) is a myokine that is secreted from skeletal muscles by the exercise. Recently, increasing evidence has suggested the multifocal physiological activities of BAIBA. In this study, we investigated whether L-BAIBA has protective effects on rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Cultured PC12 cells were stimulated with L-BAIBA. Western blot analyses revealed that L-BAIBA stimulation significantly increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt. In contrast, no effect was ...

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Tongue muscle mass is associated with total grey matter and hippocampal volumes in Dementia with Lewy Bodies

Background: Age-related neurodegeneration, sarcopenia, and ectopic fat accumulation are conditions with shared pathways that remain poorly understood. We have measured muscle volume and fat accumulation in masseter and tongue muscle, and aim to explore their association with the total grey matter volume using MRI in older adults recently diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, people newly diagnosed with mild AD (n=33) ...

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Differing impact of phosphoglycerate mutase 1-deficiency on brown and white adipose tissue

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a metabolically active organ that contributes to the thermogenic response to cold exposure. In addition, other thermogenic cells termed beige adipocytes are generated in white adipose tissue (WAT) by cold exposure. Although activation of brown/beige adipose tissue is associated with mobilization of both glucose and lipids, few studies have focused on the role of glycolytic enzymes in regulating adipose tissue function. We generated mouse models with specific deletion ...

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Obesity Differentially Effects Visceral vs. Subcutaneous Adipose Arteries: Role of Shear Activated Kir2.1 and Alterations to the Glycocalyx in Mediating Endothelial Dysfunction

Obesity imposes well-established deficits to endothelial function; however, obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction is not observed in all vascular beds. Visceral adipose arteries (VAA), but not subcutaneous adipose arteries (SAA), exhibit endothelial dysfunction. Here we aimed to determine if differences in SAA vs. VAA endothelial function observed in obesity are attributed to differential impairment of Kir channels and alterations to the glycocalyx. We used a mouse model of diet-induced obesity ...

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Angiotensin-(1-7) Mas Receptors Localized to Proopiomelanocortin Neurons Tonically Regulate Insulin Sensitivity

Angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7), a protective hormone of the renin-angiotensin system, has emerged as a novel target to improve cardiovascular and metabolic functions in animal models. In addition to blood pressure lowering effects, recent studies from our laboratory and others have shown that Ang-(1-7) can promote insulin sensitization and weight loss in obese rodents. Our recent preliminary findings suggest these effects are centrally-mediated, with Ang-(1-7) mas receptors (MasR) widely distributed to ...

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Cyclooxygenase-2 in adipose tissue macrophages limits adipose tissue dysfunction in obese mice

Obesity-associated complications are causing increasing morbidity and mortality worldwide. Expansion of adipose tissue in obesity leads to a state of low-grade chronic inflammation and dysregulated metabolism, resulting in insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) accumulate in obesity and are a source of proinflammatory cytokines that further aggravate adipocyte dysfunction. Macrophages are rich sources of cyclooxygenase (COX), the rate limiting enzyme for prostaglandin ...

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Depletion of skeletal muscle satellite cells attenuates pathology in muscular dystrophy

Skeletal muscle can repair and regenerate due to resident stem cells known as satellite cells. The muscular dystrophies are progressive muscle wasting diseases underscored by chronic muscle damage that is continually repaired by satellite cell-driven regeneration. Here we generate a genetic strategy to mediate satellite cell ablation in dystrophic mouse models to investigate how satellite cells impact disease trajectory. Unexpectedly, we observe that depletion of satellite cells reduces dystrophic ...

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Unbiased proteomics, histochemistry, and mitochondrial DNA copy number reveal better mitochondrial health in muscle of high-functioning octogenarians

Background: Master athletes (MAs) prove that preserving a high level of physical function up to very late in life is possible, but the mechanisms responsible for their high function remain unclear. Methods: We performed muscle biopsies in 15 octogenarian world-class track and field MAs and 14 non-athlete age/sex-matched controls (NA) to provide insights into mechanisms for preserving function in advanced age. Muscle samples were assessed for respiratory compromised fibers, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) ...

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Multiomics reveals persistence of obesity-associated immune cell phenotypes in adipose tissue during weight loss and weight regain in mice

Within adipose tissue (AT), immune cells and parenchymal cells closely interact creating a complex microenvironment. In obesity, immune cell derived inflammation contributes to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Diet-induced weight loss improves glucose tolerance; however, weight regain further exacerbates the impairment in glucose homeostasis observed with obesity. To interrogate the immunometabolic adaptations that occur in AT during murine weight loss and weight regain, we utilized cellular ...

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A comprehensive dynamic model of the adipocyte

The adipose tissue contributes to energy homeostasis by storing excess energy as triglycerides when the energy status is high, and by releasing fatty acids when the energy status is low. In addition to the involvement in energy homeostasis, the adipose tissue also has a function of hormonal control exerted by the release of adipokines such as adiponectin. Dysregulations in the signaling pathways of these two functions are involved in the development of type 2 diabetes and related complications such ...

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The superior beneficial effects of exercise training versus hormone replacement therapy on skeletal muscle of ovariectomized rats

Previous studies have highlighted the positive effects of Estradiol (E2) replacement therapy and physical exercise on skeletal muscle during menopause. However, the comparison effects of exercise training (ET) and estradiol replacement therapy during menopause on skeletal muscle have not been investigated to date. This study aimed to compare the effects of endurance exercise training versus E2 replacement therapy on mitochondrial density, redox status, and inflammatory biomarkers in the skeletal ...

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Probiotics synergized with conventional regimen in managing Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is mainly managed by pharmacological therapy (e.g., Benserazide and dopamine agonists). However, prolonged use of these drugs would gradually diminish their dopaminergic effect. Gut dysbiosis was observed in some patients with PD, suggesting close association between the gut microbiome and PD. Probiotics modulate the host’s gut microbiota beneficially. A 3-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to investigate the beneficial ...

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Influence of diet on acute endocannabinoidome mediator levels post exercise in active women, a crossover randomized study

The extended endocannabinoid system, also termed endocannabinoidome, participates in multiple metabolic functions in health and disease. Physical activity can both have an acute and chronic impact on endocannabinoid mediators, as does diet. In this crossover randomized controlled study, we investigated the influence of diet on the peripheral response to acute maximal aerobic exercise in a sample of active adult women (n = 7) with no underlying metabolic conditions. We compared the impact ...

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ACE2 expression in adipose tissue is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors and cell type composition—implications for COVID-19

Background: COVID-19 severity varies widely. Although some demographic and cardio-metabolic factors, including age and obesity, are associated with increasing risk of severe illness, the underlying mechanism(s) are uncertain. Subjects/methods: In a meta-analysis of three independent studies of 1471 participants in total, we investigated phenotypic and genetic factors associated with subcutaneous adipose tissue expression of Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), measured by RNA-Seq, which acts ...

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The relationships between physical activity, lumbar multifidus muscle morphology, and low back pain from childhood to early adulthood: a 12-year longitudinal study

We investigated the longitudinal associations between physical activity (PA), lumbar multifidus morphology, and impactful low back pain (LBP) in young people. Nine-year-old children were recruited from 25 primary schools and followed up at age 13, 16, and 21 years. We measured PA with accelerometers at age 9, 13, and 16; quantified patterns of lumbar multifidus intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) change from 13 to 16 years using magnetic resonance imaging; and recorded LBP and its impact with standardised ...

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The effect of low-intensity exercise on emotional and cognitive engagement in the classroom

This study examined whether engaging in physical exercise during a university class would have beneficial effect on students’ learning motivation. One hundred and forty-nine participants took part in a psychology class over nine weeks (one lesson per week); for each lesson, participants engaged in a three-minute physical activity (low-intensity aerobic exercise) or control activity (watching a video), about 20 min after the lesson started. Participants reported higher vigour and lower ...

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Dietary and lifestyle indices for hyperinsulinemia with the risk of obesity phenotypes: a prospective cohort study among Iranian adult population

Background: Previous studies have cited insulin-related disorders, including hyperinsulinemia, as one of the main causes of obesity risk and metabolic disorders. We aimed to investigate the association of the Empirical Dietary Index for Hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) and Empirical Lifestyle Index for Hyperinsulinemia (ELIH) with the risk of obesity phenotypes among Iranian adults. Methods: Present study was conducted on 2705 subjects, including 1604 metabolically healthy normal weights (MHNW) and 1101 ...

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All roads lead to Rome - a review of the potential mechanisms by which exerkines exhibit neuroprotective effects in Alzheimer's disease

Age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have become a critical public health issue due to the significantly extended human lifespan, leading to considerable economic and social burdens. Traditional therapies for AD such as medicine and surgery remain ineffective, impractical, and expensive. Many studies have shown that a variety of bioactive substances released by physical exercise (called “exerkines”) help to maintain and improve the normal functions ...

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Effects of obesity and acute resistance exercise on skeletal muscle angiogenic communication pathways

Introduction: Obesity (OB) impairs cell-to-cell communication signaling. Small extracellular vesicles (EVs), which includes exosomes, are released by skeletal muscle and participate in cell-to-cell communications including the regulation of angiogenesis. Resistance exercise (REx) increases muscle fiber size and capillarization. However, while obesity increases muscle fiber size, there is an inadequate increase in capillarization such that capillary density is reduced. It was hypothesized that REx ...

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Small Extracellular Vesicles From Brown Adipose Tissue Mediate Exercise Cardioprotection

Rationale: Long-term exercise provides reliable cardioprotection via mechanisms still incompletely understood. Although traditionally considered a thermogenic tissue, brown adipose tissue (BAT) communicates with remote organs (eg, the heart) through its endocrine function. BAT expands in response to exercise, but its involvement in exercise cardioprotection remains undefined. Objective: This study investigated whether small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) secreted by BAT and their contained microRNAs ...

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Exercise, healthy ageing, and the potential role of small extracellular vesicles

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can be released from most cells in the body and act as intercellular messengers transferring information in their cargo to affect cellular function. A growing body of evidence suggests that a subset of EVs, referred to here as ‘small extracellular vesicles’ (sEVs), can accelerate or slow the processes of ageing and age-related diseases dependent on their molecular cargo and cellular origin. Continued exploration of the vast complexity of the sEV cargo aims ...

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Systematic review and meta-analysis of protein intake to support muscle mass and function in healthy adults

We performed a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression to determine if increasing daily protein ingestion contributes to gaining lean body mass (LBM), muscle strength, and physical/functional test performance in healthy subjects. A protocol for the present study was registered (PROSPERO, CRD42020159001), and a systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Sciences databases was undertaken. Only randomized controlled trials (RCT) where participants increased their daily protein ...

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Characterizing Extracellular Vesicles and Particles Derived from Skeletal Muscle Myoblasts and Myotubes and the Effect of Acute Contractile Activity

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), released from all cells, are essential to cellular communication and contain biomolecular cargo that can affect recipient cell function. Studies on the effects of contractile activity (exercise) on EVs usually rely on plasma/serum-based assessments, which contain EVs from many different cells. To specifically characterize skeletal muscle–derived vesicles and the effect of acute contractile activity, we used an in vitro model where C2C12 mouse myoblasts were differentiated ...

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The Role of Plasma Extracellular Vesicles in Remote Ischemic Conditioning and Exercise-Induced Ischemic Tolerance

Ischemic conditioning and exercise have been suggested for protecting against brain ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the endogenous protective mechanisms stimulated by these interventions remain unclear. Here, in a comprehensive translational study, we investigated the protective role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) released after remote ischemic conditioning (RIC), blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFRRE), or high-load resistance exercise (HLRE). Blood samples were collected from human ...

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Obesity and exercise training alter inflammatory pathway skeletal muscle small extracellular vesicle microRNAs

Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation characterized by increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, whereas exercise training reduces inflammation. Small extracellular vesicles (EVs; 30–150 nm) participate in cell-to-cell communication in part through microRNA (miRNA) post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA. We examined whether obesity and concurrent aerobic and resistance exercise training alter skeletal muscle EV miRNA content and inflammatory signalling. Vastus lateralis biopsies ...

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Myofibrillar protein synthesis rates are increased in chronically exercised skeletal muscle despite decreased anabolic signaling

The molecular responses to acute resistance exercise are well characterized. However, how cellular signals change over time to modulate chronic adaptations to more prolonged exercise training is less well understood. We investigated anabolic signaling and muscle protein synthesis rates at several time points after acute and chronic eccentric loading. Adult rat tibialis anterior muscle was stimulated for six sets of ten repetitions, and the muscle was collected at 0 h, 6 h, 18 h and 48 h. In the last ...

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The effect of fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibition on resistance exercise training-induced adaptation of bone and muscle quality in mice

Aging in mammals, including humans, is accompanied by loss of bone and muscular function and mass, characterized by osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Although resistance exercise training (RET) is considered an effective intervention, its effect is blunted in some elderly individuals. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and its receptor, FGFR, can modulate bone and muscle quality during aging and physical performance. To elucidate this possibility, the FGFR inhibitor NVP-BGJ398 was administrated to C57BL/6n ...

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Influence of caffeine on the maximal isometric and concentric force produced by skinned fibers

Caffeine is one of the most famous and widely used ergogenic drugs, especially by athletes to improve sports performance. Caffeine is known to enhance muscle contraction by facilitating Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. While the effect of caffeine on the cross-bridge dynamics has also investigated, the results is controversial. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of caffeine on cross-bridge dynamics using skinned fiber preparations from rabbit soleus (N = 19 ...

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Novel brown adipose tissue candidate genes predicted by the human gene connectome

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a promising therapeutic target against obesity. Therefore, research on the genetic architecture of BAT could be key for the development of successful therapies against this complex phenotype. Hypothesis-driven candidate gene association studies are useful for studying genetic determinants of complex traits, but they are dependent upon the previous knowledge to select candidate genes. Here, we predicted 107 novel-BAT candidate genes in silico using the uncoupling protein ...

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Muscle contractions and pain sensation accompanying high-frequency electroporation pulses

To minimize neuromuscular electrical stimulation during electroporation-based treatments, the replacement of long monophasic pulses with bursts of biphasic high-frequency pulses in the range of microseconds was suggested in order to reduce muscle contraction and pain sensation due to pulse application. This treatment modality appeared under the term high-frequency electroporation (HF-EP), which can be potentially used for some clinical applications of electroporation such as electrochemotherapy, ...

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A randomized controlled trial for response of microbiome network to exercise and diet intervention in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Exercise and diet are treatments for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and prediabetes, however, how exercise and diet interventions impact gut microbiota in patients is incompletely understood. We previously reported a 8.6-month, four-arm (Aerobic exercise, n = 29; Diet, n = 28; Aerobic exercise + Diet, n = 29; No intervention, n = 29) randomized, singe blinded (for researchers), and controlled intervention in patients with NAFLD and ...

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Enhancement of anaerobic glycolysis – a role of PGC-1α4 in resistance exercise

Resistance exercise training (RET) is an effective countermeasure to sarcopenia, related frailty and metabolic disorders. Here, we show that an RET-induced increase in PGC-1α4 (an isoform of the transcriptional co-activator PGC-1α) expression not only promotes muscle hypertrophy but also enhances glycolysis, providing a rapid supply of ATP for muscle contractions. In human skeletal muscle, PGC-1α4 binds to the nuclear receptor PPARβ following RET, resulting in downstream effects ...

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The myokine Fibcd1 is an endogenous determinant of myofiber size and mitigates cancer-induced myofiber atrophy

Decline in skeletal muscle cell size (myofiber atrophy) is a key feature of cancer-induced wasting (cachexia). In particular, atrophy of the diaphragm, the major muscle responsible for breathing, is an important determinant of cancer-associated mortality. However, therapeutic options are limited. Here, we have used Drosophila transgenic screening to identify muscle-secreted factors (myokines) that act as paracrine regulators of myofiber growth. Subsequent testing in mouse myotubes revealed that mouse ...

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Strength training alters the tissue fatty acids profile and slightly improves the thermogenic pathway in the adipose tissue of obese mice

Obesity is a disease characterized by the exacerbated increase of adipose tissue. A possible way to decrease the harmful effects of excessive adipose tissue is to increase the thermogenesis process, to the greater energy expenditure generated by the increase in heat in the body. In adipose tissue, the thermogenesis process is the result of an increase in mitochondrial work, having as substrate H+ ions, and which is related to the increased activity of UCP1. Evidence shows that stress is responsible ...

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Ketone body and FGF21 coordinately regulate fasting-induced oxidative stress response in the heart

Ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) and fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) have been proposed to mediate systemic metabolic response to fasting. However, it remains elusive about the signaling elicited by ketone and FGF21 in the heart. Stimulation of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with βOHB and FGF21 induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and PGC1α expression along with the phosphorylation of LKB1 and AMPK. βOHB and FGF21 induced transcription ...

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Many Ways to Rome: Exercise, Cold Exposure and Diet—Do They All Affect BAT Activation and WAT Browning in the Same Manner?

The discovery of functional brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans and the possibility to recruit beige cells with high thermogenic potential within white adipose tissue (WAT) depots opened the field for new strategies to combat obesity and its associated comorbidities. Exercise training as well as cold exposure and dietary components are associated with the enhanced accumulation of metabolically-active beige adipocytes and BAT activation. Both activated beige and brown adipocytes increase their ...

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Chronic nicotinamide mononucleotide supplementation elevates blood nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide levels and alters muscle function in healthy older men

Preclinical studies have revealed that the elevation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) upon the administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), an NAD + precursor, can mitigate aging-related disorders; however, human data on this are limited. We investigated whether the chronic oral supplementation of NMN can elevate blood NAD + levels and alter physiological dysfunctions in healthy older participants. We administered 250 mg NMN per ...

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Alterations in intestinal microbiota in ultramarathon runners

To date, only one study has reported changes in the gut microbiome of an ultramarathon runner before and after competing in the race. Herein we aimed to investigate changes in intestinal microbiota in nine ultramarathon runners. Eight of the nine participants ran 96.102 km (up 8062 m, down 6983 km) and one ran 99.12 km (up 8448 m, down 7369 m) within 38–44 h. Intestinal microbiota alterations were examined at three timepoints: before (Pre), after (Post), and 10 days after (Recovery) the race. ...

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The relationship of muscular endurance and coordination and dexterity with behavioral and neuroelectric indices of attention in preschool children

This study investigated the associations of non-aerobic fitness (NAF) and motor competence (MC) with attention in 4–6 year-old preschoolers. The allocation of attentional resources and speed of stimulus categorization were examined using the amplitude and latency of P3 of event-related potentials respectively, while cortical activation related to general attention and task-specific discriminative processes were examined using event-related desynchronization (ERD) at lower (8–10 Hz) and ...

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Evaluation of skeletal muscle activity during foot training exercises using positron emission tomography

The foot exercises “rock-paper-scissors” and “towel gathering” are widely used in patients with lower limb disorders; however, there are no detailed reports on muscle activity during such training. We quantitatively evaluated the difference in skeletal muscle activity between the two exercises using positron emission tomography. Eight university student athletes were included. Four participants each were assigned to the foot rock-paper-scissors and towel gathering groups. ...

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Combined Effects of High-Intensity Aerobic Exercise Training and Ziziphus jujuba Extract on Tissue Nesfatin-1 in Rats

Nesfatin-1 is involved in metabolic/feeding regulation and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown that exercise and herb supplementation can influence nesfatin-1 concentration. The present study investigated the effects of high-intensity training (HIT) and Ziziphus jujuba (ZJ) extract on tissue nesfatin-1 in rats. Twenty-eight female rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups i.e. 1) Saline-Control (SC), 2) Saline-High Intensity Training (ST), 3) Ziziphus jujuba-Control ...

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Effects of Functional Phenolics Dietary Supplementation on Athletes’ Performance and Recovery: A Review

In recent years, many efforts have been made to identify micronutrients or nutritional strategies capable of preventing, or at least, attenuating, exercise-induced muscle damage and oxidative stress, and improving athlete performance. The reason is that most exercises induce various changes in mitochondria and cellular cytosol that lead to the generation of reactive species and free radicals whose accumulation can be harmful to human health. Among them, supplementation with phenolic compounds seems ...

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Identification of Potential Muscle Biomarkers in McArdle Disease: Insights from Muscle Proteome Analysis

Glycogen storage disease type V (GSDV, McArdle disease) is a rare genetic myopathy caused by deficiency of the muscle isoform of glycogen phosphorylase (PYGM). This results in a block in the use of muscle glycogen as an energetic substrate, with subsequent exercise intolerance. The pathobiology of GSDV is still not fully understood, especially with regard to some features such as persistent muscle damage (i.e., even without prior exercise). We aimed at identifying potential muscle protein biomarkers ...

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Linoleic Acid Attenuates Denervation-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy in Mice through Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Signaling

Muscle atrophy is a major muscle disease, the symptoms of which include decreased muscle volume leading to insufficient muscular support during exercise. One cause of muscle atrophy is the induction of oxidative stress by reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study aimed to identify the antioxidant mechanism of linoleic acid (LA) in muscle atrophy caused by oxidative stress. H2O2 has been used to induce oxidative stress in myoblasts in vitro. C2C12 myoblasts treated with H2O2 exhibited decreased viability ...

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Effects of Low-Intensity and Long-Term Aerobic Exercise on the Psoas Muscle of mdx Mice: An Experimental Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a muscle disease characterized by the absence of the protein dystrophin, which causes a loss of sarcolemma integrity, determining recurrent muscle injuries, decrease in muscle function, and progressive degeneration. Currently, there is a need for therapeutic treatments to improve the quality of life of DMD patients. Here, we investigated the effects of a low-intensity aerobic training (37 sessions) on satellite cells, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ...

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Structural Analysis of Mitochondrial Dynamics—From Cardiomyocytes to Osteoblasts: A Critical Review

Mitochondria play a crucial role in cell physiology and pathophysiology. In this context, mitochondrial dynamics and, subsequently, mitochondrial ultrastructure have increasingly become hot topics in modern research, with a focus on mitochondrial fission and fusion. Thus, the dynamics of mitochondria in several diseases have been intensively investigated, especially with a view to developing new promising treatment options. However, the majority of recent studies are performed in highly energy-dependent ...

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Harnessing the Power of Leptin: The Biochemical Link Connecting Obesity, Diabetes, and Cognitive Decline

In this review, the current understanding of leptin’s role in energy balance, glycemic regulation, and cognitive function is examined, and its involvement in maintaining the homeostatic “harmony” of these physiologies is explored. The effects of exercise on circulating leptin levels are summarized, and the results of clinical application of leptin to metabolic disease and neurologic dysfunction are reviewed. Finally, pre-clinical evidence is presented which suggests that synthetic ...

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Exerkines and long-term synaptic potentiation: Mechanisms of exercise-induced neuroplasticity

Physical exercise may improve cognitive function by modulating molecular and cellular mechanisms within the brain. We propose that the facilitation of long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP)-related pathways, by products induced by physical exercise (i.e., exerkines), is a crucial aspect of the exercise-effect on the brain. This review summarizes synaptic pathways that are activated by exerkines and may potentiate LTP. For a total of 16 exerkines, we indicated how blood and brain exerkine levels are ...

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Mechanisms by Which Skeletal Muscle Myokines Ameliorate Insulin Resistance

The skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body and secretes circulating factors, including myokines, which are involved in various cellular signaling processes. Skeletal muscle is vital for metabolism and physiology and plays a crucial role in insulin-mediated glucose disposal. Myokines have autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions, serving as critical regulators of myogenic differentiation, fiber-type switching, and maintaining muscle mass. Myokines have profound effects on energy metabolism ...

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Initial Muscle Quality Affects Individual Responsiveness of Interleukin-6 and Creatine Kinase following Acute Eccentric Exercise in Sedentary Obese Older Women

This study aimed to evaluate the time course and responsiveness of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and creatine kinase (CK) levels following acute eccentric resistance exercise in sedentary obese older women with a different muscle quality index (MQI). Eighty-eight participants (69.4 ± 6.06 years) completed an acute eccentric resistance exercise (7 sets of 10 repetitions at 110% of 10-repetition maximum with 3 min rest interval). Participants were divided into two groups: high or low MQI according ...

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The Effects of Irisin Hormone and the FNDC5 Gene on Brain Functions and Exercise: A Systematic Review

Introduction: The aim of this systematic review was to regroup all systematic reviews, non-systematic reviews and all original articles between 2017 and 2021 (including June) into one convenient publication that would facilitate the theoretical and applied scientific investigations directed on the efficacy of exercise and brain function on irisin hormone and FNDC5 gene. Evidence Acquisition: The systematic review was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis ...

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Integrin αV Mediates the Effects of Irisin on Human Mature Adipocytes

Introdution and Aims: The myokine irisin is critical to modulating adipocytes thermogenesis and influence whole-body metabolism. However, whether there is difference in the effects of irisin on adipocytes derived from different depots remains unknown, and the receptor of irisin on adipocytes is still unclear. In this study, we determine the browning effect of irisin on adipocytes of subcutaneous and visceral human adipose tissue and explore the possibility that integrin αV was the receptor ...

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Acute/Chronic Responses of Combined Training on Serum Pro-thermogenic/Anti-inflammatory Inducers and Its Relation With Fed and Fasting State in Overweight Type 2 Diabetic Individuals

Concentrations of pro-thermogenic/anti-inflammatory inductors are influenced by fed/fasting, sedentary/trained states, and metabolic pattern. However, there is a lack of information on the interactions of these conditions, especially in humans. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the chronic and acute training responses as well as the fed/fasted states of serum pro-thermogenic/anti-inflammatory inducers in overweight type 2 diabetics individuals. Fifteen individuals with type 2 diabetes [body ...

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Biological Response of Irisin Induced by Different Types of Exercise in Obese Subjects: A Non-Inferiority Controlled Randomized Study

Background: Weight loss through physical exercise is warranted among obese individuals. Recently, a greater benefit in cardiorespiratory fitness was achievable with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) as compared with moderate intensity continuous training. The beneficial effect of training on CV health might be related to a specific modulation of circulating irisin, an adypo-myokine implicated in the regulation of energy expenditure. Methods: The present study investigates the circulating plasma ...

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Salutary effects of moderate but not high intensity aerobic exercise training on the frequency of peripheral T-cells associated with immunosenescence in older women at high risk of breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial

Background: Immunosenescence is described as age-associated changes within the immune system that are responsible for decreased immunity and increased cancer risk. Physically active individuals have fewer ‘senescent’ and more naïve T-cells compared to their sedentary counterparts, but it is not known if exercise training can rejuvenate ‘older looking’ T-cell profiles. We determined the effects of 12-weeks supervised exercise training on the frequency of T-cell subtypes ...

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AMP-activated protein kinase activation in skeletal muscle modulates exercise-induced uncoupled protein 1 expression in brown adipocyte in mouse model

Aerobic exercise is an effective intervention in preventing obesity and is also an important factor associated with thermogenesis. There is an increasing interest in the factors and mechanisms induced by aerobic exercise that can influence the metabolism and thermogenic activity in an individual. Recent studies suggest that exercise induced circulating factors (known as ‘exerkines’), which are able to modulate activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and browning of white adipose tissue. ...

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Nobiletin enhances plasma Interleukin-6 and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 levels that are increased by treadmill running

Exercise increases the muscular secretion of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), which is partially regulated by β2-adrenergic receptor signaling. Nobiletin is a polymethoxyflavone (PMF) found in citrus fruits that induces the secretion of IL-6 from C2C12 myotubes, but it remains unclear whether nobiletin promotes IL-6 secretion during exercise. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of nobiletin on IL-6 secretion during exercise. Nobiletin and epinephrine were found to synergistically increase ...

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Comprehensive Transcriptome Profiling of NAFLD- and NASH-Induced Skeletal Muscle Dysfunction

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by extensive triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes, may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with liver fibrosis and inflammation and increase the risk of cirrhosis, cancer, and death. It has been reported that physical exercise is effective in ameliorating NAFLD and NASH, while skeletal muscle dysfunctions, including lipid deposition and weakness, are accompanied with NAFLD and NASH. However, the molecular characteristics and ...

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The effects of whole-body vibration amplitude on glucose metabolism, inflammation, and skeletal muscle oxygenation

Whole-body vibration (WBV) is an exercise mimetic that elicits beneficial metabolic effects. This study aims to investigate the effects of WBV amplitude on metabolic, inflammatory, and muscle oxygenation responses. Forty women and men were assigned to a high (HI; n = 20, Age: 31 ± 6 y) or a low-amplitude group (LO; n = 20, Age: 33 ± 6 y). Participants engaged in 10 cycles of WBV [1 cycle =1 min of vibration followed by 30 s of rest], while gastrocnemius muscle oxygen consumption (mVO2) ...

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Too hard to die: Exercise training mediates specific and immediate SARS-CoV-2 protection

Several mechanisms may explain how exercise training mechanistically confers protection against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here we propose two new perspectives through which cardiorespiratory fitness may protect against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Physical exercise-activated adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling induces endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS), increases NO bio-availability, and inhibits palmitoylation, ...

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Supraphysiological activation of TAK1 promotes skeletal muscle growth and mitigates neurogenic atrophy

Skeletal muscle mass is regulated through coordinated activation of multiple signaling pathways. TAK1 signalosome has been found to be activated in various conditions of muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. However, the role and mechanisms by which TAK1 regulates skeletal muscle mass remain less understood. Here, we demonstrate that supraphysiological activation of TAK1 in skeletal muscle of adult mice stimulates translational machinery, protein synthesis, and myofiber growth. TAK1 causes phosphorylation ...

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Inhibition of CXXC5 function reverses obesity-related metabolic diseases

Background: Metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, have long been considered incurable, chronic conditions resulting from a variety of pathological conditions in obese patients. Growing evidence suggests the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a major pathway in adipose tissue remodelling, pancreatic β-cell regeneration and energy expenditure through regulation of key metabolic target genes in various tissues. CXXC5-type zinc finger protein 5 (CXXC5) is identified negative feedback regulator ...

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Distinct and additive effects of calorie restriction and rapamycin in aging skeletal muscle

Preserving skeletal muscle function is essential to maintain life quality at high age. Calorie restriction (CR) potently extends health and lifespan, but is largely unachievable in humans, making “CR mimetics” of great interest. CR targets nutrient-sensing pathways centering on mTORC1. The mTORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin, is considered a potential CR mimetic and is proven to counteract age-related muscle loss. Therefore, we tested whether rapamycin acts via similar mechanisms as CR to slow ...

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Relationship between different serum cartilage biomarkers in the acute response to running and jumping in healthy male individuals

The effect of physical activity on serum cartilage biomarkers is largely unknown. The purpose of the study was to systematically analyze the acute effect of two frequently used exercise interventions (running and jumping) on the correlation of seven serum biomarkers that reflect cartilage extracellular matrix metabolism. Fifteen healthy male volunteers (26 ± 4 years, 181 ± 4 cm, 77 ± 6 kg) participated in the repeated measurement study. ...

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IL-37 isoform D acts as an inhibitor of soluble ST2 to boost type 2 immune homeostasis in white adipose tissue

White adipose tissue (WAT) homeostasis substantiated by type 2 immunity is indispensable to counteract obesity and metabolic disorders. IL-33/suppression of tumorigenicity (ST) 2 signaling promotes type 2 response in WAT, while potential regulators remain to be discovered. We identified human IL-37 isoform D (IL-37D) as an effective trigger for ST2-mediated type 2 immune homeostasis in WAT. IL-37D transgene amplified ST2+ immune cells, promoted M2 macrophage polarization and type 2 cytokine secretion ...

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Cell Senescence and Central Regulators of Immune Response

Pathways regulating cell senescence and cell cycle underlie many processes associated with ageing and age-related pathologies, and they also mediate cellular responses to exposure to stressors. Meanwhile, there are central mechanisms of the regulation of stress responses that induce/enhance or weaken the response of the whole organism, such as hormones of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, thymic hormones, and the pineal hormone melatonin. ...

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Effects of exercise on NAFLD using non-targeted metabolomics in adipose tissue, plasma, urine, and stool

The mechanisms by which exercise benefits patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common liver disease worldwide, remain poorly understood. A non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC–MS)-based metabolomics analysis was used to identify metabolic changes associated with NAFLD in humans upon exercise intervention (without diet change) across four different sample types—adipose tissue (AT), plasma, urine, and stool. Altogether, 46 subjects with NAFLD ...

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Preventive aerobic training preserves sympathovagal function and improves DNA repair capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in rats with cardiomyopathy

To evaluate the effect of preventive aerobic exercise training on sympathovagal function, cardiac function, and DNA repair capacity in a preclinical model of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy. Forty male Wistar-Kyoto rats were allocated into four groups (n = 10/group): D (DOX-treated) and C (controls) remained sedentary, and DT (DOX-trained) and CT (control-trained) performed aerobic training 4 days/week, during 4 weeks before exposure to DOX (4 mg/kg/week during 4 weeks) or ...

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Gut microbiota-bile acid crosstalk contributes to the rebound weight gain after calorie restriction in mice

Calorie restriction (CR) and fasting are common approaches to weight reduction, but the maintenance is difficult after resuming food consumption. Meanwhile, the gut microbiome associated with energy harvest alters dramatically in response to nutrient deprivation. Here, we reported that CR and high-fat diet (HFD) both remodeled the gut microbiota with similar microbial composition, Parabacteroides distasonis was most significantly decreased after CR or HFD. CR altered microbiota and reprogramed metabolism, ...

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Antioxidant, Anti-Obesity, Nutritional and Other Beneficial Effects of Different Chili Pepper: A Review

Fruits and vegetables are important components of a healthy diet. They are rich sources of vitamins and minerals, dietary fibre and a host of beneficial non-nutrient substances including plant sterols, flavonoids and other antioxidants. It has been reported that reduced intake of fruits and vegetables may increase the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Chili pepper, is a common and important spice used to enhance taste and nutrition. Over the years, reports have shown its potential as antioxidant ...

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Anti-Obesity and Anti-Hyperglycemic Effects of Meretrix lusoria Protamex Hydrolysate in ob/ob Mice

Meretrix lusoria (M. lusoria) is an economically important shellfish which is widely distributed in South Eastern Asia that contains bioactive peptides, proteins, and enzymes. In the present study, the extracted meat content of M. lusoria was enzymatic hydrolyzed using four different commercial proteases (neutrase, protamex, alcalase, and flavourzyme). Among the enzymatic hydrolysates, M. lusoria protamex hydrolysate (MLPH) fraction with MW ≤ 1 kDa exhibited the highest free radical scavenging ...

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Phenotypic differences between people varying in muscularity

Background: Body mass is the primary metabolic compartment related to a vast number of clinical indices and predictions. The extent to which skeletal muscle (SM), a major body mass component, varies between people of the same sex, weight, height, and age is largely unknown. The current study aimed to explore the magnitude of muscularity variation present in adults and to examine if variation in muscularity associates with other body composition and metabolic measures. Methods: Muscularity was defined ...

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Effects of reduced sedentary time on cardiometabolic health in adults with metabolic syndrome: A three-month randomized controlled trial

Objectives: The aim was to investigate if reducing sedentary behavior (SB) improves cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Design: Randomized controlled trial. Methods: Sixty-four sedentary middle-aged adults with MetS were randomized into intervention (INT; n = 33) and control (CON; n = 31) groups. INT was guided to limit SB by 1 h/day through increased standing and light-intensity physical activity (LPA). CON was instructed to maintain usual habits. SB, ...

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Collaborative, Dyadic, and Individual Planning and Physical Activity: A Dyadic Randomized Controlled Trial

Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of collaborative, dyadic, and individual planning on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in target person–partner dyads. Individual planning reflects an “I-for-me” planning of one person’s behavior. Collaborative planning refers to joint planning of both dyad members’ behavior (“We-for-us” planning), and dyadic planning refers to joint planning of only the target person’s behavior ...

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S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine extends lifespan through methionine restriction effects

Methionine restriction (MetR) can extend lifespan and delay the onset of aging-associated pathologies in most model organisms. Previously, we showed that supplementation with the metabolite S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) extends lifespan and activates the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the mechanism involved and whether SAH can extend metazoan lifespan have remained unknown. Here, we show that SAH supplementation reduces ...

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The ergogenic effect of acute carnosine and anserine supplementation: dosing, timing, and underlying mechanism

Background: Recent studies suggest that acute-combined carnosine and anserine supplementation has the potential to improve the performance of certain cycling protocols. Yet, data on optimal dose, timing of ingestion, effective exercise range, and mode of action are lacking. Three studies were conducted to establish dosing and timing guidelines concerning carnosine and anserine intake and to unravel the mechanism underlying the ergogenic effects. Methods: First, a dose response study A was conducted ...

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Pre-sleep protein supplementation after an acute bout of evening resistance exercise does not improve next day performance or recovery in resistance trained men

Background: To evaluate the effect of pre-sleep protein supplementation after an acute bout of evening resistance training on next day performance and recovery the following day in physically active men. Methods: Eighteen resistance trained men performed a single bout of resistance exercise then received either a pre-sleep protein (PRO) supplement containing 40 g of casein protein (PRO; n = 10; mean ± SD; age = 24 ± 4 yrs; height = 1.81 ± 0.08 m; weight = 84.9 ± 9.5 kg) ...

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Effects of short-term betaine supplementation on muscle endurance and indices of endocrine function following acute high-intensity resistance exercise in young athletes

Objective: This study examined the effects of short-term betaine supplementation on muscle endurance, plasma lactate, testosterone and cortisol levels, and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio in response to acute resistance exercise (RE). Methods: Using a double-blind, crossover study design, 10 handball players (age ± SD = 16 ± 1 yrs) without prior-structured RE experience performed a high-intensity RE session (leg press followed by bench press; 5 sets to volitional fatigue using ...

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Role of Obesity, Physical Exercise, Adipose Tissue-Skeletal Muscle Crosstalk and Molecular Advances in Barrett’s Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

Both obesity and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) rates have increased sharply in the United States and Western Europe in recent years. EAC is a classic example of obesity-related cancer where the risk of EAC increases with increasing body mass index. Pathologically altered visceral fat in obesity appears to play a key role in this process. Visceral obesity may promote EAC by directly affecting gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus (BE), as well as a less reflux-dependent effect, ...

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Exercised accelerated the production of muscle-derived kynurenic acid in skeletal muscle and alleviated the postmenopausal osteoporosis through the Gpr35/NFκB p65 pathway

Background: Reduced serum estrogen levels in postmenopausal patients not only aggravate bone loss but also impact myokine secretion. Emerging evidence has revealed the importance of myokines in bone metabolism, and exercise can interfere with the secretion of myokines. However, few studies have explored the impact of exercise on myokine secretion in the postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) process. Methods: Ten-weeks-old C57B/L6 female mice were used for constructing the postmenopausal osteoporosis ...

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Physical Exercise Restrains Cancer Progression through Muscle-Derived Factors

A growing body of in vitro and in vivo studies suggests that physical activity offers important benefits against cancer, in terms of both prevention and treatment. However, the exact mechanisms implicated in the anticancer effects of exercise remain to be further elucidated. Muscle-secreted factors in response to contraction have been proposed to mediate the physical exercise-induced beneficial effects and be responsible for the inter-tissue communications. Specifically, myokines and microRNAs (miRNAs) ...

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Apelin Resistance Contributes to Muscle Loss during Cancer Cachexia in Mice

Cancer cachexia consists of dramatic body weight loss with rapid muscle depletion due to imbalanced protein homeostasis. We found that the mRNA levels of apelin decrease in muscles from cachectic hepatoma-bearing rats and three mouse models of cachexia. Furthermore, apelin expression inversely correlates with MuRF1 in muscle biopsies from cancer patients. To shed light on the possible role of apelin in cachexia in vivo, we generated apelin 13 carrying all the last 13 amino acids of apelin in D isomers, ...

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Modulating Tumour Hypoxia in Prostate Cancer Through Exercise: The Impact of Redox Signalling on Radiosensitivity

Prostate cancer is a complex disease affecting millions of men globally. Radiotherapy (RT) is a common treatment modality although treatment efficacy is dependent upon several features within the tumour microenvironment (TME), especially hypoxia. A hypoxic TME heightens radioresistance and thus disease recurrence and treatment failure continues to pose important challenges. However, the TME evolves under the influence of factors in systemic circulation and cellular crosstalk, underscoring its potential ...

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Gestational Exercise Increases Male Offspring’s Maximal Workload Capacity Early in Life

Mothers’ antenatal strategies to improve the intrauterine environment can positively decrease pregnancy-derived intercurrences. By challenging the mother–fetus unit, gestational exercise (GE) favorably modulates deleterious stimuli, such as high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet-induced adverse consequences for offspring. We aimed to analyze whether GE alters maternal HFHS-consumption effects on male offspring’s maximal workload performance (MWP) and in some skeletal muscle (the soleus—SOL ...

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Myostatin/Activin Receptor Ligands in Muscle and the Development Status of Attenuating Drugs

Muscle wasting disease indications are among the most debilitating and often deadly noncommunicable disease states. As a comorbidity, muscle wasting is associated with different neuromuscular diseases and myopathies, cancer, heart failure, chronic pulmonary and renal diseases, peripheral neuropathies, inflammatory disorders, and, of course, musculoskeletal injuries. Current treatment strategies are relatively ineffective and can at best only limit the rate of muscle degeneration. This includes nutritional ...

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Irisin ameliorates neuroinflammation and neuronal apoptosis through integrin αVβ5/AMPK signaling pathway after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice

Background: Neuroinflammation is a crucial factor in the development of secondary brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Irisin is a newly identified myokine that confers strong neuroprotective effects in experimental ischemic stroke. However, whether this myokine can exert neuroprotection effects after ICH remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impact of irisin treatment on neuroinflammation and neuronal apoptosis and the underlying mechanism involving integrin αVβ5/AMPK ...

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Identification of Coenzyme Q10 and Skeletal Muscle Protein Biomarkers as Potential Factors to Assist in the Diagnosis of Sarcopenia

The aim of this study was to explore the use of coenzyme Q10 and skeletal muscle protein biomarkers in the diagnosis of sarcopenia. Subjects with or without sarcopenia were recruited. The anthropometric, muscle strength and endurance measurements were assessed. Muscle proteins (albumin and creatine kinase), myokines (irisin and myostatin), and the coenzyme Q10 level were measured. Approximately half of the subjects suffered from a low coenzyme Q10 concentration (<0.5 μM). The levels of creatinine ...

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Ischemia during rest intervals between sets prevents decreases in fatigue during the explosive squat exercise: a randomized, crossover study

The study aimed to evaluate the impact of ischemia, used only before particular sets of a lower limb resistance exercise on power output. Ten healthy resistance-trained males (age = 26 ± 6 years; body mass = 90 ± 9 kg; training experience = 9 ± 7 years) performed two experimental sessions (with ischemia; control without ischemia) following a randomized crossover design. During the ischemic condition, ...

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EBI2 is a negative modulator of brown adipose tissue energy expenditure in mice and human brown adipocytes

Pharmacological activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an attractive approach for increasing energy expenditure to counteract obesity. Given the side-effects of known activators of BAT, we studied inhibitors of BAT as a novel, alternative concept to regulate energy expenditure. We focused on G-protein-coupled receptors that are one of the major targets of clinically used drugs. Here, we identify GPR183, also known as EBI2, as the most highly expressed inhibitory G-protein-coupled receptor in ...

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Inflammatory cytokines and sarcopenia in Iranian adults-results from SARIR study

Some studies suggested the effects of inflammatory cytokines in reducing muscle mass and muscle strength and, performance. This study aimed to compare pro-inflammatory cytokines in sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic subjects. 120 men and women were selected out from the cross-sectional study ‘sarcopenia and its determinants among Iranian elders’ (SARIR). Sarcopenia was defined based on the first ‘European Working Group on sarcopenia in older people’ (EWGSOP1) guidelines. A fasting ...

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Adipocyte Gq signaling is a regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis in mice

Obesity is the major driver of the global epidemic in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In individuals with obesity, impaired insulin action leads to increased lipolysis in adipocytes, resulting in elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels that promote peripheral insulin resistance, a hallmark of T2D. Here we show, by using a combined genetic/biochemical/pharmacologic approach, that increased adipocyte lipolysis can be prevented by selective activation of adipocyte Gq signaling in vitro and in vivo (in mice). ...

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Hypothesized pathways for the association of vitamin D status and insulin sensitivity with resting energy expenditure: a cross sectional mediation analysis in Australian adults of European ancestry

Background: The role of vitamin D in human energy expenditure requires confirmation. We explored whether insulin sensitivity (IS)/insulin resistance (IR) mediated the association of vitamin D status (25OHD) on resting energy expenditure (REE). Methods: REE, body composition (by DEXA) and clinical biochemistry of 155 Australian men and women were collated. A hypothesized mediation pathway through IS/IR on the direct association between 25OHD and REE was modeled, using three surrogate indices of IS/IR: ...

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The association between diabetes and hypertension with the number and extent of weight cycles determined from 6 million participants

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the association between weight cycling and clinical outcomes such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension with differential effects of baseline age and obesity. Nationwide data from 6,132,569 healthy adults who underwent five or more health screenings between 2002 and 2011 were analyzed and followed until December 2019 for type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Weight cycling was defined as a change in body weight followed by another change in the opposite direction. ...

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Irisin protects against vascular calcification by activating autophagy and inhibiting NLRP3-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell pyroptosis in chronic kidney disease

Irisin protects the cardiovascular system against vascular diseases. However, its role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) -associated vascular calcification (VC) and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the potential link among Irisin, pyroptosis, and VC under CKD conditions. During mouse vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification induced by β-glycerophosphate (β-GP), the pyroptosis level was increased, as evidenced by the upregulated expression ...

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Long-chain ceramides are cell non-autonomous signals linking lipotoxicity to endoplasmic reticulum stress in skeletal muscle

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) regulates cellular protein and lipid biosynthesis. ER dysfunction leads to protein misfolding and the unfolded protein response (UPR), which limits protein synthesis to prevent cytotoxicity. Chronic ER stress in skeletal muscle is a unifying mechanism linking lipotoxicity to metabolic disease. Unidentified signals from cells undergoing ER stress propagate paracrine and systemic UPR activation. Here, we induce ER stress and lipotoxicity in myotubes. We observe ER stress-inducing ...

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Exercise suppresses tumor growth independent of high fat food intake and associated immune dysfunction

Epidemiological data suggest that exercise training protects from cancer independent of BMI. Here, we aimed to elucidate mechanisms involved in voluntary wheel running-dependent control of tumor growth across chow and high-fat diets. Access to running wheels decreased tumor growth in B16F10 tumor-bearing on chow (− 50%) or high-fat diets (− 75%, p < 0.001), however, tumor growth was augmented in high-fat fed mice (+ 53%, p < 0.001). Tumor growth ...

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Aerobic exercise promotes the expression of ATGL and attenuates inflammation to improve hepatic steatosis via lncRNA SRA

The role of aerobic exercise in preventing and improving non-alcoholic fatty liver has been widely established. SRA is a long non-coding RNA, which has received increasing attention due to its important role in lipid metabolism. However, it is unclear whether aerobic exercise can prevent and treat hepatic lipid accumulation via SRA. The mice were randomly divided into four groups as follows, normal control group, normal aerobic exercise group, high-fat diet group (HFD), and high-fat diet plus aerobic ...

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Effect of different recovery modes during resistance training with blood flow restriction on hormonal levels and performance in young men: a randomized controlled trial

Background: Resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR) results in hypertrophy, and its magnitude depends on various training variables. This study aimed to compare the long-term effect of passive recovery (PR) and active recovery (AR) during low-intensity resistance training with BFR on hormonal levels and performance in young men. Methods: In the randomized clinical trial, 20 men were randomly divided into PR and AR groups during resistance training with BFR. The intervention consisted ...

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The roles of catechins in regulation of systemic inflammation

Catechins are a phytochemical present in plants such as tea leaves, beans, black grapes, cherries, and cacao, and have various physiological activities. It is reported that catechins have a health improvement effect and ameliorating effect against various diseases. In addition, antioxidant activity, liver damage prevention, cholesterol lowering effect, and anti-obesity activity were confirmed through in vivo animal and clinical studies. Although most diseases are reported as ones mediating various ...

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The Effects of Carbohydrate versus Fat Restriction on Lipid Profiles in Highly Trained, Recreational Distance Runners: A Randomized, Cross-Over Trial

A growing number of endurance athletes have considered switching from a traditional high-carbohydrate/low-fat (HCLF) to a low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LCHF) eating pattern for health and performance reasons. However, few studies have examined how LCHF diets affect blood lipid profiles in highly-trained runners. In a randomized and counterbalanced, cross-over design, athletes (n = 7 men; VO2max: 61.9 ± 6.1 mL/kg/min) completed six weeks of two, ad libitum, LCHF (6/69/25% en carbohydrate/fat/protein) ...

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Myokines and Resistance Training: A Narrative Review

In the last few years, the muscular system has gained attention due to the discovery of the muscle-secretome and its high potency for retaining or regaining health. These cytokines, described as myokines, released by the working muscle, are involved in anti-inflammatory, metabolic and immunological processes. These are able to influence human health in a positive way and are a target of research in metabolic diseases, cancer, neurological diseases, and other non-communicable diseases. Therefore, ...

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Physiological Responses to Combat Sports in Metabolic Diseases: A Systematic Review

The aim of this systematic review was to investigate how individuals with metabolic diseases respond to combat sports and if they are feasible, safe, and applicable. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, from inception until 22 January 2021. Studies were included if combat sport exercise sessions were clearly defined and participants had the following types of metabolic disease: type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, overweight, and obesity. Eleven studies, involving ...

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The Impact of Exercise on Telomere Length, DNA Methylation and Metabolic Footprints

Aging as a major risk factor influences the probability of developing cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, amongst others. The underlying mechanisms of disease are still not fully understood, but research suggests that delaying the aging process could ameliorate these pathologies. A key biological process in aging is cellular senescence which is associated with several stressors such as telomere shortening or enhanced DNA methylation. Telomere length as well as DNA methylation levels can ...

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Exerkines in health, resilience and disease

The health benefits of exercise are well-recognized and are observed across multiple organ systems. These beneficial effects enhance overall resilience, healthspan and longevity. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the beneficial effects of exercise, however, remain poorly understood. Since the discovery in 2000 that muscle contraction releases IL-6, the number of exercise-associated signalling molecules that have been identified has multiplied. Exerkines are defined as signalling moieties released ...

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Histone Deacetylases as Modulators of the Crosstalk Between Skeletal Muscle and Other Organs

Skeletal muscle plays a major role in controlling body mass and metabolism: it is the most abundant tissue of the body and a major source of humoral factors; in addition, it is primarily responsible for glucose uptake and storage, as well as for protein metabolism. Muscle acts as a metabolic hub, in a crosstalk with other organs and tissues, such as the liver, the brain, and fat tissue. Cytokines, adipokines, and myokines are pivotal mediators of such crosstalk. Many of these circulating factors ...

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Crosstalk between CYP2E1 and PPARα substrates and agonists modulate adipose browning and obesity

Although the functions of metabolic enzymes and nuclear receptors in controlling physiological homeostasis have been established, their crosstalk in modulating metabolic disease has not been explored. Genetic ablation of the xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2E1 in mice markedly induced adipose browning and increased energy expenditure to improve obesity. CYP2E1 deficiency activated the expression of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) target genes, ...

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Obesity and exercise training alter inflammatory pathway skeletal muscle small extracellular vesicle miRNAs

Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation characterized by increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, while exercise training reduces inflammation. Small EVs (30-150 nm) participate in cell-to-cell communication in part through miRNA post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA. Purpose: The current study examined if obesity and concurrent exercise training alter skeletal muscle: (1) EV miRNA content and (2) inflammatory signaling. Methods: Vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained from sedentary ...

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Effects of exercise intensity on white adipose tissue browning and its regulatory signals in mice

Adipose tissue has been classified into white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and beige adipose tissue the latter of which is produced as WAT changes into BAT due to exposure to cold temperature or exercise. In response to these stimulations, WAT produces heat by increasing mitochondrial contents and the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), thus facilitating browning. Exercise is known to be one of the triggers for WAT browning, but the effects of exercise intensity on the ...

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N1-Methylnicotinamide: Is It Time to Consider as a Dietary Supplement for Athletes?

Exercise is considered to be a "medicine" due to its modulatory roles in metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. The intensity and duration of exercise determine the mechanism of energy production by various tissues of the body, especially by muscles, in which the requirement for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) increases by as much as 100-fold. Naturally, athletes try to improve their exercise performance by dietary supplementation with, e.g., vitamins, metabolites, and amino acids. MNAM, ...

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Organokines and Exosomes: Integrators of Adipose Tissue Macrophage Polarization and Recruitment in Obesity

The prevalence of obesity is escalating and has become a worldwide health challenge coinciding with the development of metabolic diseases. Emerging evidence has shown that obesity is accompanied by the infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue, contributing to a state of low-grade chronic inflammation and dysregulated metabolism. Moreover, in the state of obesity, the phenotype of adipose tissue macrophages switches from the M2 polarized state to the M1 state, thereby contributing to chronic ...

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Obesity: A Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation and Its Markers

As the prevalence of obesity continues to rise, the world is facing a major public health concern. Obesity is a complex disease associated with an increase in several inflammatory markers, leading to chronic low-grade inflammation. Of multifactorial etiology, it is often used as a measurement of morbidity and mortality. There remains much unknown regarding the association between obesity and inflammation. This review seeks to compile scientific literature on obesity and its associated inflammatory ...

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High-intensity interval training and moderate intensity training with exogenous adenosine counteract development of obesity in rats

Objectives: High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) and Moderate Intensity Training (MIT) can combat the obesity epidemic. However, studies comparing their effects on obesity show controversial findings regarding weight loss. Adenosine has emerged as a possible, novel therapeutic agent to treat obesity, but more preclinical studies on its efficacy are needed. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to compare the effects of HIIT and MIT on obesity, and further to determine the dose-dependent ...

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PET/MRI-evaluated brown adipose tissue activity may be related to dietary MUFA and omega-6 fatty acids intake

An investigation of new ways to activate brown adipose tissue (BAT) is highly valuable, as it is a possible tool for obesity prevention and treatment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationships between dietary intake and BAT activity. The study group comprised 28 healthy non-smoking males aged 21–42 years. All volunteers underwent a physical examination and 75-g OGTT and completed 3-day food intake diaries to evaluate macronutrients and fatty acid intake. Body composition measurements ...

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Patients with low muscle mass have characteristic microbiome with low potential for amino acid synthesis in chronic liver disease

Sarcopenia is thought to be related to the microbiome, but not enough reports in chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. In addition to the differences in microbiome, the role of the microbiome in the gut is also important to be clarified because it has recently been shown that the microbiome may produce branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in the body. In this single-center study, sixty-nine CLD patients were divided by skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) into low (L-SMI: n = 25) and normal ...

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Effects of Cardiorespiratory Fitness on Cerebral Oxygenation in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review

Introduction: Exercise is known to improve cognitive functioning and the cardiorespiratory hypothesis suggests that this is due to the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) level and cerebral oxygenation. The purpose of this systematic review is to consolidate findings from functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) studies that examined the effect of CRF level on cerebral oxygenation during exercise and cognitive tasks. Methods: Medline, Embase, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science ...

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Why do humans undergo an adiposity rebound? Exploring links with the energetic costs of brain development in childhood using MRI-based 4D measures of total cerebral blood flow

Background: Individuals typically show a childhood nadir in adiposity termed the adiposity rebound (AR). The AR serves as an early predictor of obesity risk, with early rebounders often at increased risk; however, it is unclear why this phenomenon occurs, which could impede understandings of weight gain trajectories. The brain’s energy requirements account for a lifetime peak of 66% of the body’s resting metabolic expenditure during childhood, around the age of the AR, and relates inversely ...

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Oral administration of processed Cassia obtusifolia L. seed powder May reduce body weight and cholesterol in overweight patients with schizophrenia: A 36-week randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of high and low doses

Obesity in patients with schizophrenia is related to antipsychotic drug use, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, which are critical risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Cassia seed is a traditional Chinese medicine that can be used to treat various eye disorders. Anthraquinone-containing Cassia seed were used to lower serum levels of fat and cholesterol. Aim of study: The effects of Cassia seed powder on body weight and lipids were investigated in overweight or obese patients with schizophrenia. Methods: ...

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Therapeutic routine with respiratory exercises improves posture, muscle activity, and respiratory pattern of patients with neck pain: a randomized controlled trial

Neck pain and forward head posture (FHP) are typical in prolonged smartphone users and need to be targeted for treatment. We aimed to compare the effect of a routine therapeutic program with and without respiratory exercises on smartphone users with FHP and non-specific chronic neck pain (NSCNP). Sixty patients (aged 24.7 ± 2.1 years) with FHP and NSCNP were randomly assigned to the routine therapeutic program (n = 20), combined respiratory exercises with a routine therapeutic ...

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The outstanding beneficial roles of irisin disorders

Depression is a widely observed psychiatric disorder that affects a quite large number of people all around the world. A major depressive disorder (MDD) is a multifactorial disease that IS associated with fluctuations in appetite, body weight, and energy situations in addition to serious mood problems. The aim of this review is to investigate a possible link between energy regulatory hormones of irisin and depressive disorders. Irisin is a hormone that plays a significant role in the regulation of ...

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Exercise for the Diabetic Gut—Potential Health Effects and Underlying Mechanisms

It can be assumed that changes in the gut microbiota play a crucial role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It is generally accepted that regular physical activity is beneficial for the prevention and therapy of T2DM. Therefore, this review analyzes the effects of exercise training on the gut microbiota composition and the intestinal barrier function in T2DM. The current literature shows that regular exercise can influence the gut microbiota composition and the intestinal barrier ...

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Brain Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia: To Find a Way Out from “Fear-Avoidance Belief”

It is well known that exercise produces analgesic effects (exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH)) in animal models and chronic pain patients, but the brain mechanisms underlying these EIH effects, especially concerning the emotional aspects of pain, are not yet fully understood. In this review, we describe drastic changes in the mesocorticolimbic system of the brain which permit the induction of EIH effects. The amygdala (Amyg) is a critical node for the regulation of emotions, such as fear and anxiety, ...

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Interleukin 6 as an energy allocator in muscle tissue

Extensive research has shown that interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional molecule that is both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory, depending on the context. Here, we combine an evolutionary perspective with physiological data to propose that IL-6’s context-dependent effects on metabolism reflect its adaptive role for short-term energy allocation. This energy-allocation role is especially salient during physical activity, when skeletal muscle releases large amounts of IL-6. We predict ...

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Myokine Expression and Tumor-Suppressive Effect of Serum after 12 wk of Exercise in Prostate Cancer Patients on ADT

Purpose: Although several mechanisms have been proposed for the tumor-suppressive effect of exercise, little attention has been given to myokines, even though skeletal muscle is heavily recruited during exercise resulting in myokine surges. We measured resting serum myokine levels before and after an exercise-based intervention and the effect of this serum on prostate cancer cell growth. Methods: Ten prostate cancer patients undertaking androgen deprivation therapy (age, 73.3 ± 5.6 yr) undertook ...

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Exercise Therapy for People With Sarcopenic Obesity: Myokines and Adipokines as Effective Actors

Sarcopenic obesity is defined as a multifactorial disease in aging with decreased body muscle, decreased muscle strength, decreased independence, increased fat mass, due to decreased physical activity, changes in adipokines and myokines, and decreased satellite cells. People with sarcopenic obesity cause harmful changes in myokines and adipokines. These changes are due to a decrease interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-15 (IL-15), insulin-like growth factor hormone (IGF-1), irisin, leukemia inhibitory ...

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Anabolic Factors and Myokines Improve Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Skeletal Muscle Cells

Skeletal muscle weakness is linked to many adverse health outcomes. Current research to identify new drugs has often been inconclusive due to lack of adequate cellular models. We previously developed a scalable monolayer system to differentiate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into mature skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs) within 26 days without cell sorting or genetic manipulation. Here, building on our previous work, we show that differentiation and fusion of myotubes can be further enhanced using ...

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The effect of exercise interventions on Irisin level a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Irisin is a hormone that is offered to be a hopeful remedial target in obesity and type 2 diabetes. It has received striking attention recently, whereas, the interactions between exercise training and irisin are still unclear. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the impacts of exercise interventions on circulating irisin in adults. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and Scopus up to July 15, 2021. Twenty-four studies, ...

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FNDC5/Irisin: Physiology and Pathophysiology

A sedentary lifestyle or lack of physical activity increases the risk of different diseases, including obesity, diabetes, heart diseases, certain types of cancers, and some neurological diseases. Physical exercise helps improve quality of life and reduces the risk of many diseases. Irisin, a hormone induced by exercise, is a fragmented product of FNDC5 (a cell membrane protein) and acts as a linkage between muscles and other tissues. Over the past decade, it has become clear that irisin is a molecular ...

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Adipose-tissue plasticity in health and disease

Adipose tissue, colloquially known as “fat,” is an extraordinarily flexible and heterogeneous organ. While historically viewed as a passive site for energy storage, we now appreciate that adipose tissue regulates many aspects of whole-body physiology, including food intake, maintenance of energy levels, insulin sensitivity, body temperature, and immune responses. A crucial property of adipose tissue is its high degree of plasticity. Physiologic stimuli induce dramatic alterations in adipose-tissue ...

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Disuse-associated loss of the protease LONP1 in muscle impairs mitochondrial function and causes reduced skeletal muscle mass and strength

Mitochondrial proteolysis is an evolutionarily conseved quality-control mechanism to maintain proper mitochondrial integrity and function. However, the physiological relevance of stress-induced impaired mitochondrial protein quality remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that LONP1, a major mitochondrial protease resides in the matrix, plays a role in controlling mitochondrial function as well as skeletal muscle mass and strength in response to muscle disuse. In humans and mice, disuse-related muscle ...

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Exercise in advanced prostate cancer elevates myokine levels and suppresses in-vitro cell growth

Background: Altering the systemic milieu through exercise has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying exercise-driven tumour suppression. It is not yet known whether men with advanced prostate cancer can elicit such adaptations following a program of exercise. The purpose is to examine myokine levels of serum acquired from metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients recruited to the INTERVAL-GAP4 trial before and after 6 months of exercise and its tumour-suppressive effect. Methods: ...

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Effect of Sleep Extension on Objectively Assessed Energy Intake Among Adults With Overweight in Real-life SettingsA Randomized Clinical Trial

Importance: Short sleep duration has been recognized as a risk factor for obesity. Whether extending sleep duration may mitigate this risk remains unknown. Objective: To determine the effects of a sleep extension intervention on objectively assessed energy intake, energy expenditure, and body weight in real-life settings among adults with overweight who habitually curtailed their sleep duration. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-center, randomized clinical trial was conducted from ...

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Muscle protein synthesis and muscle/metabolic responses to resistance exercise training in South Asian and White European men

The aims of the current study, therefore, were to compare (1) free-living MPS and (2) muscle and metabolic adaptations to resistance exercise in South Asian and white European adults. Eighteen South Asian and 16 White European men were enrolled in the study. Free-living muscle protein synthesis was measured at baseline. Muscle strength, body composition, resting metabolic rate, VO2max and metabolic responses (insulin sensitivity) to a mixed meal were measured at baseline and following 12 weeks of ...

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Potential of micro-exercise to prevent long-term sickness absence in the general working population: prospective cohort study with register follow-up

This study assesses the potential of workplace-based micro-exercise (brief and simple exercise bouts) to prevent long-term sickness absence (LTSA) at the population level. In the Work Environment and Health in Denmark Study (2012–2018), we followed 70,130 workers from the general working population, without prior LTSA, for two years in the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalisation. We used Cox regression with model-assisted weights and controlled for various confounders. From 2012 to ...

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The energy balance model of obesity: beyond calories in, calories out

A recent Perspective article described the “carbohydrate-insulin model (CIM)” of obesity, asserting that it “better reflects knowledge on the biology of weight control” as compared to what was described as the “dominant energy balance model (EBM)” that fails to consider “biological mechanisms that promote weight gain”. Unfortunately, the Perspective conflated and confused the principle of energy balance, a law of physics which is agnostic as to obesity ...

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Home-based, supervised, and mixed exercise intervention on functional capacity and quality of life of colorectal cancer patients: a meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials tested the effects of home-based, supervised, or mixed exercise interventions on the functional capacity (FC) and quality of life (QoL) in colorectal cancer patients. A literature search was performed using the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Medline databases. Two reviewers screened the literature through March 10, 2021 for studies related to exercise and colorectal cancer. Of the 1161 screened studies in the initial search, ...

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Myokines in Appetite Control and Energy Balance

Efficacy of obesity treatments varies between individuals, highlighting the presence of responders and non-responders. Whilst exercise alone or exercise combined with diet leads to underwhelming weight loss for most, there exist super responders losing significant weight. Furthermore, in response to weight loss, the majority but not all patients tend to regain weight. Within the biopsychosocial model, biology as a determinant of response has been underappreciated. The understanding of the role that ...

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TAZ links exercise to mitochondrial biogenesis via mitochondrial transcription factor A

Mitochondria are energy-generating organelles and mitochondrial biogenesis is stimulated to meet energy requirements in response to extracellular stimuli, including exercise. However, the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial biogenesis remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. In muscle-specific TAZ-knockout (mKO) mice, mitochondrial biogenesis, respiratory metabolism, and exercise ability ...

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Single bout of exercise triggers the increase of vitamin D blood concentration in adolescent trained boys: a pilot study

Vitamin D is necessary for musculoskeletal health, however, the supplementation of vitamin D above the sufficiency level does not bring additional bone mass density (BMD), unlike physical exercise which enhances the bone formatting process. Regular physical activity has been shown to upregulate VDR expression in muscles and to increase circulating vitamin D. Here we investigate whether a single bout of exercise might change 25(OH)D3 blood concentration and how it affects metabolic response to exercise. ...

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Clusterin is involved in mediating the metabolic function of adipose SIRT1

SIRT1 is a metabolic sensor regulating energy homeostasis. The present study revealed that mice with selective overexpression of human SIRT1 in adipose tissue (Adipo-SIRT1) were protected from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic abnormalities. Adipose SIRT1 was enriched at mitochondria-ER contacts (MERCs) to trigger mitohormesis and unfolded protein response (UPRmt), in turn preventing ER stress. As a downstream target of UPRmt, clusterin was significantly upregulated and acted together with SIRT1 ...

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Effects of short sprint interval training on aerobic and anaerobic indices: A systematic review and meta-analysis

The effects of short sprint interval training (sSIT) with efforts of ≤10 seconds on maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max), aerobic and anaerobic performances remain unknown. To verify the effectiveness of sSIT in physically active adults and athletes, a systematic literature search was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The databases PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, SPORTDiscus were systematically searched on the 9th of May ...

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Estimated Number of Deaths Prevented Through Increased Physical Activity Among US Adults

Previous studies suggest that a substantial number of deaths could be prevented annually by increasing population levels of physical activity. However, previous estimates have relied on convenience samples, used self-reported physical activity data, and assumed relatively large increases in activity levels (eg, more than 30 minutes per day). The potential public health benefit of changing daily physical activity by a manageable amount is not yet known. In this study, we used accelerometer measurements ...

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Renal failure suppresses muscle irisin expression, and irisin blunts cortical bone loss in mice

Background: Chronic renal failure induces bone mineral disorders and sarcopenia. Skeletal muscle affects other tissues, including bone, by releasing myokines. However, the effects of chronic renal failure on the interactions between muscle and bone remain unclear. Methods: We investigated the effects of renal failure on bone, muscle, and myokines linking muscle to bone using a mouse 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx) model. Muscle mass and bone mineral density (BMD) were analysed by quantitative computed tomography ...

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Dissociation of Bone Resorption and Formation in Spaceflight and Simulated Microgravity: Potential Role of Myokines and Osteokines?

The dissociation of bone formation and resorption is an important physiological process during spaceflight. It also occurs during local skeletal unloading or immobilization, such as in people with neuromuscular disorders or those who are on bed rest. Under these conditions, the physiological systems of the human body are perturbed down to the cellular level. Through the absence of mechanical stimuli, the musculoskeletal system and, predominantly, the postural skeletal muscles are largely affected. ...

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The high-intensity interval training introduced in physical education lessons decrease systole in high blood pressure adolescents

Increased resting blood pressure (BP) is a risk factor for many health complications. The prevalence of elevated BP is growing among adolescents. There is a need to investigate effective ways of decreasing excessive blood pressure in this age group. The study aim was to determine the effect of 10-weeks High-Intensive Interval Training (HIIT)—Tabata protocol—introduced in physical education (PE) lessons on resting blood pressure in adolescents. The sample included 52 boys aged 16.23 ± 0.33 ...

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Moderate Treadmill Exercise Modulates Gut Microbiota and Improves Intestinal Barrier in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Mice via the AMPK/CDX2 Signaling Pathway

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate treadmill exercise on gut microbiota, expression of proteins associated with gut barrier and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying their role in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice. Methods: Six-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into standard chow diet control group (SD + Sed, n=6), chow diet exercise group (SD + Exe, n=6), high-fat diet control group (HFD + Sed, n=6) and high-fat diet exercise group (HFD + ...

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Acute effects of low-volume intermittent versus higher-volume continuous exercise on arterial stiffness in healthy young men

To compare the acute effects of low-volume intermittent and higher-volume continuous exercise on arterial stiffness, 20 healthy men (22.4 ± 0.4 years) were randomized to non-exercise control (CON), high-volume Continuous Exercise (CE), lower-volume Intermittent exercise of Long bouts with Long interval (ILL), of Long bouts with Short interval (ILS), and of Short bouts with Short interval trial (ISS). Exercise intensity was 35% heart rate reserve. Arterial stiffness in Cardio-ankle ...

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Metabolite Signature of Physical Activity and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in 7271 Men

Large population-based studies investigating the association of physical activity (PA) with the metabolite signature contribute significantly to the understanding of the effects of PA on metabolic pathways associated with the risk of type2 diabetes. Our study included 8749 Finnish men without diabetes at baseline recruited from the Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) cohort. We used a questionnaire to measure leisure-time PA. Metabolites were measured in 7271 men as a part of Metabolon’s untargeted ...

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The role of the androgen receptor in the pathogenesis of obesity and its utility as a target for obesity treatments

Obesity is associated with hypothalamic–pituitary–testicular axis dysregulation in males. Here, we summarize recent evidence derived from clinical trials and studies in preclinical animal models regarding the role of androgen receptor (AR) signaling in the pathophysiology of males with obesity. We also discuss therapeutic strategies targeting the AR for the treatment of obesity and their limitations and provide insight into the future research necessary to advance this field. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.13429

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Susceptibility to diet-induced obesity at thermoneutral conditions is independent of UCP1

Activation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) upon cold stimulation leads to substantial increase in energy expenditure to defend body temperature. Increases in energy expenditure after a high-caloric food intake, termed diet-induced thermogenesis, are also attributed to BAT. These properties render BAT a potential target to combat diet-induced obesity. However, studies investigating the role of UCP1 to protect against diet-induced obesity are controversial and rely on the ...

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Effect of Aerobic or Resistance Exercise, or Both, on Intermuscular and Visceral Fat and Physical and Metabolic Function in Older Adults With Obesity While Dieting

Background: Obesity exacerbates age-related effects on body composition and physical and metabolic function. Which exercise mode is most effective in mitigating these deleterious changes in dieting older adults with obesity is unknown. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, we performed a head-to-head comparison of aerobic (AEX), resistance (REX), or combination (COMB) exercise during matched ~10% weight loss in 160 obese older adults. Prespecified analyses compared 6-month changes in intermuscular ...

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Exercise training modulates adipokines dysregulations in metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for various metabolic diseases, and it is characterized by central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance. The core component for MetS is adipose tissue, which releases adipokines and influences physical health. Adipokines consist of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines and contribute to various physiological functions. Generally, a sedentary lifestyle promotes fat accumulation and secretion of pro-inflammatory adipokines. ...

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Exercise Training Improves Memory Performance in Older Adults: A Narrative Review of Evidence and Possible Mechanisms

As human life expectancy increases, cognitive decline and memory impairment threaten independence and quality of life. Therefore, finding prevention and treatment strategies for memory impairment is an important health concern. Moreover, a better understanding of the mechanisms involved underlying memory preservation will enable the development of appropriate pharmaceuticals drugs for those who are activity limited. Exercise training as a non-pharmacological tool, has been known to increase the mean ...

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A new paradigm in sarcopenia: Cognitive impairment caused by imbalanced myokine secretion and vascular dysfunction

Sarcopenia characterized by reduced skeletal muscle mass and decreased muscle strength is increasing in prevalence globally. The pathophysiology of sarcopenia is related to various factors including hormonal imbalance, increased intracellular oxidative stress, reduction of food intake, advanced age, low body mass index, and low physical activity. Recently, sarcopenia has been reported to be associated with cognitive decline, and the common risk factors between sarcopenia and memory loss were observed ...

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Influence of adiponectin and inflammatory cytokines in fatty degenerative atrophic muscle

Tendon rupture and nerve injury cause fatty infiltration of the skeletal muscle, and the adipokines secreted from the infiltrated adipocytes are known to contribute to chronic inflammation. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of the adipokines on chronic inflammation using a rat sciatic nerve-crushed injury model. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that the expression of adiponectin was decreased (0.3-fold) and the expression of Il6 (~ 3.8-fold) and Tnf (~ 6.2-fold) ...

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Adipocyte-specific Nos2 deletion improves insulin resistance and dyslipidemia through brown fat activation in diet-induced obese mice

Objective: Inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS2) is a well-documented inflammatory mediator of insulin resistance in obesity. NOS2 expression is induced in both adipocytes and macrophages within adipose tissue during high-fat (HF)-induced obesity. Methods: Eight-week-old male mice with adipocyte selective deletion of the Nos2 gene (Nos2AD−KO) and their wildtype littermates (Nos2fl/fl) were subjected to chow or high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) diet for 10 weeks followed by metabolic phenotyping ...

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Irisin: circulating levels in serum and its relation to gonadal axis

Irisin is an exercise-induced myokine/adipokine in mice and humans that plays an important role in ‘browning’ of white adipose tissue and has shown great potential as a treatment for some metabolic diseases, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation. The circulating irisin level is reported to be associated with exercise, obesity, diet, diseases, and exposure to different pharmacological agents. Several studies have attempted to characterize the role of irisin in PCOS and ...

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Irisin and Secondary Osteoporosis in Humans

Irisin is a peptide secreted by skeletal muscle following exercise that plays an important role in bone metabolism. Numerous experiments in vitro and in mouse models have shown that the administration of recombinant irisin promotes osteogenesis, protects osteocytes from dexamethasone-induced apoptosis, prevents disuse-induced loss of bone and muscle mass, and accelerates fracture healing. Although some aspects still need to be elucidated, such as the dose- and frequency-dependent effects of irisin ...

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The mediating roles of demand and satisfaction in formation process of physical exercise habits among college students

Considering the situation and disadvantages of being physically inactive as well as the nature and advantages of doing physical exercise regularly, there is a need to explore how physical exercise habits are cultivated and formed. The study was to examine the formation process of physical exercise habits. According to the Model of Physical Exercise and Habit, It was speculated that satisfaction, demand or chain from satisfaction to demand could mediate the relationship between physical exercise behavior ...

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The association of weight loss with changes in the gut microbiota diversity, composition, and intestinal permeability: a systematic review and meta-analysis

The gut microbiome may be a mediator between obesity and health outcomes. However, it is unclear how intentional weight loss changes the gut microbiota and intestinal permeability. We aimed to systematically review and quantify this association. We searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane databases, and trial registries until June 2020 (PROSPERO: CRD42020205292). We included trials of weight loss interventions (energy-restricted diets, pharmacotherapy, bariatric surgery) reporting on the microbiome. ...

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Body mass index and cognitive decline among community-living older adults: the modifying effect of physical activity

Objective: To examine the associations between BMI categories and subsequent 3-year cognitive decline among older adults, and to test whether physical activity modifies the associations. Methods: Study sample included n = 1028 cognitively unimpaired older adults participating in the Étude sur la Santé des Aînés (ESA)-Services longitudinal study and followed 3 years later. Cognitive decline was defined as a decrease of > 3 points in MMSE scores ...

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The Impact of a High-Carbohydrate/Low Fat vs. Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Performance and Body Composition in Physically Active Adults: A Cross-Over Controlled Trial

Background: Recently, high-carbohydrate or low-carbohydrate (HC/LC) diets have gained substantial popularity, speculated to improve physical performance in athletes; however, the effects of short-term changes of the aforementioned nutritional interventions remain largely unclear. Methods: The present study investigated the impact of a three-week period of HC/low-fat (HC) diet followed by a three-week wash-out-phase and subsequent LC diet on the parameters of physical capacity assessed via cardiopulmonary ...

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Atlas of exercise metabolism reveals time-dependent signatures of metabolic homeostasis

Tissue sensitivity and response to exercise vary according to the time of day and alignment of circadian clocks, but the optimal exercise time to elicit a desired metabolic outcome is not fully defined. To understand how tissues independently and collectively respond to timed exercise, we applied a systems biology approach. We mapped and compared global metabolite responses of seven different mouse tissues and serum after an acute exercise bout performed at different times of the day. Comparative ...

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All roads lead to Rome — a review of the potential mechanisms by which exerkines exhibit neuroprotective effects in Alzheimer's disease

Age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have become a critical public health issue due to the significantly extended human lifespan, leading to considerable economic and social burdens. Traditional therapies for AD such as medicine and surgery remain ineffective, impractical, and expensive. Many studies have shown that a variety of bioactive substances released by physical exercise (called “exerkines”) help to maintain and improve the normal functions ...

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Impact of Physical Activity and Exercise on the Epigenome in Skeletal Muscle and Effects on Systemic Metabolism

Exercise and physical activity induces physiological responses in organisms, and adaptations in skeletal muscle, which is beneficial for maintaining health and preventing and/or treating most chronic diseases. These adaptations are mainly instigated by transcriptional responses that ensue in reaction to each individual exercise, either resistance or endurance. Consequently, changes in key metabolic, regulatory, and myogenic genes in skeletal muscle occur as both an early and late response to exercise, ...

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Enrichment of the exocytosis protein STX4 in skeletal muscle remediates peripheral insulin resistance and alters mitochondrial dynamics via Drp1

Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Syntaxin 4 (STX4) levels are reduced in human diabetic skeletal muscle, and global transgenic enrichment of STX4 expression improves insulin sensitivity in mice. Here, we show that transgenic skeletal muscle-specific STX4 enrichment (skmSTX4tg) in mice reverses established insulin resistance and improves mitochondrial function in the context of diabetogenic stress. Specifically, skmSTX4tg reversed insulin resistance caused ...

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Priming cardiovascular exercise improves complex motor skill learning by affecting the trajectory of learning-related brain plasticity

In recent years, mounting evidence from animal models and studies in humans has accumulated for the role of cardiovascular exercise (CE) in improving motor performance and learning. Both CE and motor learning may induce highly dynamic structural and functional brain changes, but how both processes interact to boost learning is presently unclear. Here, we hypothesized that subjects receiving CE would show a different pattern of learning-related brain plasticity compared to non-CE controls, which in ...

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Abnormal whole-body energy metabolism in iron-deficient humans despite preserved skeletal muscle oxidative phosphorylation

Iron deficiency impairs skeletal muscle metabolism. The underlying mechanisms are incompletely characterised, but animal and human experiments suggest the involvement of signalling pathways co-dependent upon oxygen and iron availability, including the pathway associated with hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). We performed a prospective, case–control, clinical physiology study to explore the effects of iron deficiency on human metabolism, using exercise as a stressor. Thirteen iron-deficient (ID) ...

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Behavioural and neuroplastic effects of a double-blind randomised controlled balance exercise trial in people with Parkinson’s disease

Balance dysfunction is a disabling symptom in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Evidence suggests that exercise can improve balance performance and induce neuroplastic effects. We hypothesised that a 10-week balance intervention (HiBalance) would improve balance, other motor and cognitive symptoms, and alter task-evoked brain activity in people with PD. We performed a double-blind randomised controlled trial (RCT) where 95 participants with PD were randomised to either HiBalance (n = 48) ...

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The effect of exercise on cytokines: implications for musculoskeletal health: a narrative review

The physiological effects of physical exercise are ubiquitously reported as beneficial to the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. Exercise is widely promoted by medical professionals to aid both physical and emotional wellbeing; however, mechanisms through which this is achieved are less well understood. Despite numerous beneficial attributes, certain types of exercise can inflict significant significant physiological stress. Several studies document a key relationship between exercise and ...

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Effect of eccentric and concentric contraction mode on myogenic regulatory factors expression in human vastus lateralis muscle

Skeletal muscle contractions are caused to release myokines by muscle fiber. This study investigated the myogenic regulatory factors, as MHC I, IIA, IIX, Myo-D, MRF4, Murf, Atrogin-1, Decorin, Myonection, and IL-15 mRNA expression in the response of eccentric vs concentric contraction. Eighteen healthy men were randomly divided into two eccentric and concentric groups, each of 9 persons. Isokinetic contraction protocols included maximal single-leg eccentric or concentric knee extension tasks at 60°/s ...

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Myokine Irisin promotes osteogenesis by activating BMP/SMAD signaling via αV integrin and regulates bone mass in mice

Irisin is well-known to contribute to bone homeostasis due to its bidirectional regulation on osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. However, the mechanisms of irisin involved in mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs)-derived osteogenesis are still under investigated. Fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) is the precursor protein of irisin, compare with wild type (WT) littermates, FNDC5-/- mice lost bone mass significantly, collectively evidenced by the decrease of bone mineral density ...

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Inter-organ Crosstalk in Pancreatic Islet Function and Pathology

Pancreatic β cells secrete insulin in response to glucose, a process that is regulated at multiple levels, including a network of input signals from other organ systems. Impaired islet function contributes the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and targeting inter-organ communications, such as GLP-1 signalling, to enhance β cell function has been proven to be a successful therapeutic strategy in the last decade. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in inter-organ ...

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Skeletal muscle derived Musclin protects the heart during pathological overload

Cachexia is associated with poor prognosis in chronic heart failure patients, but the underlying mechanisms of cachexia triggered disease progression remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate whether the dysregulation of myokine expression from wasting skeletal muscle exaggerates heart failure. RNA sequencing from wasting skeletal muscles of mice with heart failure reveals a reduced expression of Ostn, which encodes the secreted myokine Musclin, previously implicated in the enhancement of natriuretic ...

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Identification of a regulatory pathway inhibiting adipogenesis via RSPO2

Healthy adipose tissue remodeling depends on the balance between de novo adipogenesis from adipogenic progenitor cells and the hypertrophy of adipocytes. De novo adipogenesis has been shown to promote healthy adipose tissue expansion, which confers protection from obesity-associated insulin resistance. Here, we define the role and trajectory of different adipogenic precursor subpopulations and further delineate the mechanism and cellular trajectory of adipogenesis, using single-cell RNA-sequencing ...

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Protective effects of physical activity in colon cancer and underlying mechanisms: A review of epidemiological and biological evidence

Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that physical activity has a protective effect against colon cancer development and progression. Further, the relevant biological mechanisms where physical activity or exercise may improve survival have also been initially examined. In this review, we provide an overview of the epidemiological evidence to date which comprises 16 cohort studies of the effects of physical activity on colon cancer outcomes including cancer recurrence, cancer-specific and overall ...

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Iron chelation increases beige fat differentiation and metabolic activity, preventing and treating obesity

Beige and brown fat consume glucose and lipids to produce heat, using uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). It is thought that full activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) may increase total daily energy expenditure by 20%. Humans normally have more beige and potentially beige-able fat than brown fat. Strategies to increase beige fat differentiation and activation may be useful for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Mice were fed chow or high-fat diet (HFD) with or without the iron chelator deferasirox. ...

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Effects of paternal overnutrition and interventions on future generations

In the last two decades, evidence from human and animal studies suggests that paternal obesity around the time of conception can have adverse effects on offspring health through developmental programming. This may make significant contributions to the current epidemic of obesity and related metabolic and reproductive complications like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and subfertility/infertility. To date, changes in seminal fluid composition, sperm DNA methylation, histone composition, small non-coding ...

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Safety, efficacy and delivery of isometric resistance training as an adjunct therapy for blood pressure control: a modified Delphi study

Uncontrolled hypertension remains the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Isometric resistance training (IRT) has been shown to be a useful nonpharmacological therapy for reducing blood pressure (BP); however, some exercise physiologists and other health professionals are uncertain of the efficacy and safety of IRT. Experts’ consensus was sought in light of the current variability of IRT use as an adjunct treatment for hypertension. An expert consensus-building analysis (Delphi study) ...

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Quadriceps physiological response during the 1-min sit-to-stand test in people with severe COPD and healthy controls

We compared quadriceps oxygenation and surface electromyography (sEMG) responses during the 1-min sit-to-stand (1STS) in 14 people with severe COPD and 12 controls, in whom cardiorespiratory response, near-infrared spectroscopy signals (oxy [Hb-Mb], deoxy [Hb-Mb], total [Hb-Mb], and SmO2) and sEMG signals of the quadriceps were recorded. Time duration of each sit-to-stand cycle and the total work performed during the 1STS were measured. The quadriceps oxygenation parameters were normalized by reporting ...

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Association between the recognition of muscle mass and exercise habits or eating behaviors in female college students

This study aimed to examine the association between muscle mass and perception of body shape, desired body shape, physical strength, exercise habits, and eating behaviors. Height, weight, and body composition in 270 female university students were measured. The questionnaire on body shape perception, desired body shape, dieting experience, current, and past exercise habits, exercise preference, and eating behaviors were administered. The analysis of covariance with body fat mass as the covariate ...

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Multifactorial Mechanism of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity. Role of Physical Exercise, Microbiota and Myokines

Obesity and ageing place a tremendous strain on the global healthcare system. Age-related sarcopenia is characterized by decreased muscular strength, decreased muscle quantity, quality, and decreased functional performance. Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is a condition that combines sarcopenia and obesity and has a substantial influence on the older adults’ health. Because of the complicated pathophysiology, there are disagreements and challenges in identifying and diagnosing SO. Recently, it has ...

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Factors Mediating Exercise-induced Organ Crosstalk

Exercise activates a plethora of metabolic and signalling pathways in skeletal muscle and other organs causing numerous systemic beneficial metabolic effects. Thus, regular exercise may ameliorate and prevent the development of several chronic metabolic diseases. Skeletal muscle is recognized as an important endocrine organ regulating systemic adaptations to exercise. Skeletal muscle may mediate crosstalk with other organs through the release of exercise-induced cytokines, peptides and proteins, ...

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Endothelial NOX5 Expression Modulates Thermogenesis and Lipolysis in Mice Fed with a High-Fat Diet and 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through an Interleukin-6 Dependent Mechanism

Obesity is a global health issue associated with the development of metabolic syndrome, which correlates with insulin resistance, altered lipid homeostasis, and other pathologies. One of the mechanisms involved in the development of these pathologies is the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). One of the main producers of ROS is the family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases, among which NOX5 is the most recently discovered member. The aim of the present ...

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Equal-Volume Strength Training With Different Training Frequencies Induces Similar Muscle Hypertrophy and Strength Improvement in Trained Participants

The main goal of the current study was to compare the effects of volume-equated training frequency on gains in muscle mass and strength. In addition, we aimed to investigate whether the effect of training frequency was affected by the complexity, concerning the degrees of freedom, of an exercise. Participants were randomized to a moderate training frequency group (two weekly sessions) or high training frequency group (four weekly sessions). Twenty-one participants (male: 11, female: 10, age: 25.9 ...

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Hepatic p38 Activation Modulates Systemic Metabolism Through FGF21-Mediated Interorgan Communication

The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of steatosis and insulin resistance in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease remain elusive. Increased phosphorylation of hepatic p38 has long been noticed in fatty liver; however, whether the activation of hepatic p38 is a cause or consequence of liver steatosis is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that hepatic p38 activation by MKK6 overexpression in the liver of mice induces severe liver steatosis, reduces fat mass, and elevates circulating fatty acid levels in ...

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Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) and Organokines: What Is Now and What Will Be in the Future

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by steatosis, lobular inflammation, and enlargement of the diameter of hepatocytes (ballooning hepatocytes), with or without fibrosis. It affects 20% of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Due to liver dysfunction and the numerous metabolic changes that commonly accompany the condition (obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome), the secretion of organokines is modified, which may contribute to the ...

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FGF1 and insulin control lipolysis by convergent pathways

Inexorable increases in insulin resistance, lipolysis, and hepatic glucose production (HGP) are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes. Previously, we showed that peripheral delivery of exogenous fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) has robust anti-diabetic effects mediated by the adipose FGF receptor (FGFR) 1. However, its mechanism of action is not known. Here, we report that FGF1 acutely lowers HGP by suppressing adipose lipolysis. On a molecular level, FGF1 inhibits the cAMP-protein kinase A axis by activating ...

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Aging Leukocytes and the Inflammatory Microenvironment of the Adipose Tissue

Age-related immunosenescence, defined as an increase in inflammaging and the decline of the immune system, leads to tissue dysfunction and increased risk for metabolic disease. The elderly population is expanding, leading to a heightened need for therapeutics to improve health span. With age, many alterations of the immune system are observed, including shifts in the tissue-resident immune cells, increased expression of inflammatory factors, and the accumulation of senescent cells, all of which are ...

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Aerobic Exercise Combination Intervention to Improve Physical Performance Among the Elderly: A Systematic Review

The benefits of aerobic exercise for the elderly are well-known. They extend beyond cardiovascular changes and can reduce the inactivity-induced loss of strength, mobility, balance, and endurance that are vital for the safe performance of daily activities in older adults. However, the benefits of combined aerobic exercise with other exercises such as strength/resistance, multi-component and aerobic exercise remain unknown. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of combined aerobic exercise ...

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May the Force and Mass Be With You – Evidence-Based Contribution of Mechano-Biological Descriptors of Resistance Exercise

Skeletal muscle is one of the most important tissues of the human body. It comprises up to 40% of the body mass and is crucial to survival. Hence, the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass and strength is pivotal. It is well-established that resistance exercise provides a potent anabolic stimulus to increase muscle mass and strength in men and women of all ages. Resistance exercise consists of mechano-biological descriptors, such as load, muscle action, number of repetitions, repetition duration, number ...

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The effect of toll-like receptor ligands on energy metabolism and myokine expression and secretion in cultured human skeletal muscle cells

Skeletal muscle plays an important role in glycaemic control and metabolic homeostasis, making it a tissue of interest with respect to type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to determine if ligands of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) could have an impact on energy metabolism and myokine expression and secretion in cultured human skeletal muscle cells. The myotubes expressed mRNA for TLRs 1–6. TLR3, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR6 ligands (TLRLs) increased glucose metabolism. Furthermore, ...

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The short and long-term effects of aerobic, strength, or mixed exercise programs on schizophrenia symptomatology

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three different physical exercise programs on the symptomatology, body composition, physical activity, physical fitness, and quality of life of individuals with schizophrenia. A total of 432 patients were assessed for eligibility and 86 were randomized into the aerobic (n = 28), strength (n = 29) or mixed (n = 29) groups. Positive, negative, and general symptoms of psychosis, body mass index (BMI), physical ...

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Caffeine increases performance and leads to a cardioprotective effect during intense exercise in cyclists

The present study was designed to investigate the effects of different caffeine dietary strategies to compare the impact on athletic performance and cardiac autonomic response. The order of the supplementation was randomly assigned: placebo(4-day)-placebo(acute)/PP, placebo(4-day)-caffeine(acute)/PC and caffeine(4-day)-caffeine(acute)/CC. Fourteen male recreationally-trained cyclists ingested capsules containing either placebo or caffeine (6 mg kg−1) for 4 days. On day 5 (acute), capsules containing ...

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Regulation of aged skeletal muscle regeneration by circulating extracellular vesicles

Heterochronic blood exchange (HBE) has demonstrated that circulating factors restore youthful features to aged tissues. However, the systemic mediators of those rejuvenating effects remain poorly defined. We show here that the beneficial effect of young blood on aged muscle regeneration was diminished when serum was depleted of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Whereas EVs from young animals rejuvenate aged cell bioenergetics and skeletal muscle regeneration, aging shifts EV subpopulation heterogeneity ...

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Eccentric Exercise: Adaptations and Applications for Health and Performance

The goals of this narrative review are to provide a brief overview of the muscle and tendon adaptations to eccentric resistance exercise and address the applications of this form of training to aid rehabilitative interventions and enhance sports performance. This work is centered on the author contributions to the Special Issue entitled "Eccentric Exercise: Adaptations and Applications for Health and Performance". The major themes from the contributing authors include the need to place greater attention ...

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Muscle-to-fat ratio identifies functional impairments and cardiometabolic risk and predicts outcomes: biomarkers of sarcopenic obesity

Background: Sarcopenic obesity aims to capture the risk of functional decline and cardiometabolic diseases, but its operational definition and associated clinical outcomes remain unclear. Using data from the Longitudinal Aging Study of Taipei, this study explored the roles of the muscle-to-fat ratio (MFR) with different definitions and its associations with clinical characteristics, functional performance, cardiometabolic risk and outcomes. Methods: (1) Appendicular muscle mass divided by total ...

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Short and long-term effects of high-intensity interval training applied alone or with whole-body cryostimulation on glucose homeostasis and myokine levels in overweight to obese subjects

Background: COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the problem of physical inactivity and weight gain. Consequently, new strategies to counteract weight gain are being sought. Because of their accessibility, interval training and cold therapy are the most popular such strategies. We here aimed to examine the effect of 6 units of high-intensity interval training (HIIT), applied alone or in combination with 10 sessions of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC; 3 min at –110 ∘C per session) on incretins, ...

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The multifunctional protein E4F1 links P53 to lipid metabolism in adipocytes

Growing evidence supports the importance of the p53 tumor suppressor in metabolism but the mechanisms underlying p53-mediated control of metabolism remain poorly understood. Here, we identify the multifunctional E4F1 protein as a key regulator of p53 metabolic functions in adipocytes. While E4F1 expression is upregulated during obesity, E4f1 inactivation in mouse adipose tissue results in a lean phenotype associated with insulin resistance and protection against induced obesity. Adipocytes lacking ...

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β3-adrenergic receptor downregulation leads to adipocyte catecholamine resistance in obesity

The dysregulation of energy homeostasis in obesity involves multi-hormone resistance. Although leptin and insulin resistance have been well characterized, catecholamine resistance remains largely unexplored. Murine β3-adrenergic receptor expression in adipocytes is orders of magnitude higher compared to other isoforms. While resistant to classical desensitization pathways, its mRNA (Adrb3) and protein expression are dramatically downregulated after ligand exposure (homologous desensitization). ...

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Dietary supplements consumption and its association with socioeconomic factors, obesity and main non-communicable chronic diseases in the north of Iran: the PERSIAN Guilan Cohort Study (PGCS)

Background: Dietary supplements (DSs) use have become a growing trend worldwide, and it may be affected by demographic and sociocultural factors. Some people use supplements with the thought that they can improve their health, reduce symptoms and prevent disease. The aim of the present study was to define the frequency of DS use and its association with socioeconomic factors among participants with selected main non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) (diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension ...

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Pathways in Skeletal Muscle: Protein Signaling and Insulin Sensitivity after Exercise Training and Weight Loss Interventions in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

Aging and obesity contribute to insulin resistance with skeletal muscle being critically important for maintaining whole-body glucose homeostasis. Both exercise and weight loss are lifestyle interventions that can affect glucose metabolism. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a six-month trial of aerobic exercise training or weight loss on signaling pathways in skeletal muscle in the basal condition and during hyperinsulinemia during a glucose clamp in middle-aged and older adults. ...

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Transcriptomic adaptation during skeletal muscle habituation to eccentric or concentric exercise training

Eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CON) contractions induce distinct muscle remodelling patterns that manifest early during exercise training, the causes of which remain unclear. We examined molecular signatures of early contraction mode-specific muscle adaptation via transcriptome-wide network and secretome analyses during 2 weeks of ECC- versus CON-specific (downhill versus uphill running) exercise training (exercise ‘habituation’). Despite habituation attenuating total numbers of exercise-induced ...

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Lack of Endothelial α1AMPK Reverses the Vascular Protective Effects of Exercise by Causing eNOS Uncoupling

Voluntary exercise training is an effective way to prevent cardiovascular disease, since it results in increased NO bioavailability and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), especially its α1AMPK subunit, modulates ROS-dependent vascular homeostasis. Since endothelial cells play an important role in exercise-induced changes of vascular signaling, we examined the consequences of endothelial-specific α1AMPK deletion during voluntary exercise ...

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Comparing Acute, High Dietary Protein and Carbohydrate Intake on Transcriptional Biomarkers, Fuel Utilisation and Exercise Performance in Trained Male Runners

Manipulating dietary macronutrient intake may modulate adaptive responses to exercise, and improve endurance performance. However, there is controversy as to the impact of short-term dietary modification on athletic performance. In a parallel-groups, repeated measures study, 16 trained endurance runners (maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max): 64.2 ± 5.6 mL·kg−1·min−1) were randomly assigned to, and provided with, either a high-protein, reduced-carbohydrate (PRO) or a high-carbohydrate ...

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Paracrine FGFs target skeletal muscle to exert potent anti-hyperglycemic effects

Several members of the FGF family have been identified as potential regulators of glucose homeostasis. We previously reported that a low threshold of FGF-induced FGF receptor 1c (FGFR1c) dimerization and activity is sufficient to evoke a glucose lowering activity. We therefore reasoned that ligand identity may not matter, and that besides paracrine FGF1 and endocrine FGF21, other cognate paracrine FGFs of FGFR1c might possess such activity. Indeed, via a side-by-side testing of multiple cognate FGFs ...

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Balance of Autonomic Nervous Activity, Exercise, and Sleep Status in Older Adults: A Review of the Literature

While older people are frequently known to experience sleep disturbances, there are also many older people who have a good quality of sleep. However, little is known about the balance of autonomic nervous activity, exercise habits, and sleep status in healthy older adults. This study reviews the literature regarding balance of the autonomic nervous activity, exercise, and sleep in healthy older adults. Relevant articles were searched from electronic databases using the combination of the following ...

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The effect of exercise training interventions in adult kidney transplant recipients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised control trials

Background: Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) are characterised by adverse changes in physical fitness and body composition. Post-transplant management involves being physically active, although evidence for the effect of exercise is limited. Objective: To assess the effects of exercise training interventions in KTRs. Methods: NCBI PubMed (MEDLINE) and CENTRAL (EMBASE, WHO ICTRP) databases were searched up to March 2021 to identify eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that studied exercise ...

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Effects of 5 Years Aerobic Exercise on Cognition in Older Adults: The Generation 100 Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate whether a 5-year exercise intervention and change in peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) is associated with cognitive function in older adults. Methods: Nine hundred and forty-five participants (48% women, mean age at study end 78.2 ± 2.02 years) from the Generation 100 Study were randomized 2:1:1 to a control group, moderate-intensity continuous training or high-intensity interval training twice weekly for 5 years. Peak oxygen ...

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Exercise for counteracting post-acute COVID-19 syndrome in patients with cancer: an old but gold strategy?

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection has caused morbidity and mortality at an unprecedented scale [1]. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel beta coronavirus responsible for new respiratory infections with mild-to-severe presentations in humans. At the beginning of the pandemic, major attention was directed to investigate the acute effect of COVID-19, as well as to identify potential therapeutic and preventive strategies to control the virus spread. More ...

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The role of physical exercise intensity to irisin levels on overweight and obese

Physical exercise is a non-pharmacological therapy that can secrete various types of myokines to treat obesity problems. One of the myokines that play a role is irisin. Irisin is a polypeptide hormone with 112 amino acid residues that are synthesized in skeletal muscle after the proteolytic precursor cleavage of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5). The release of irisin in the blood circulation will stimulate the browning process in white fat tissue by inducing the expression ...

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Exercise rather than fluoxetine promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination in the hippocampus in a male mouse model of depression

Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) systems have been meaningfully linked to the clinical phenomena of mood disorders, 15–35% of patients do not respond to multiple SSRI interventions or even experience an exacerbation of their condition. As we previously showed, both running exercise and fluoxetine reversed depression-like behavior. However, whether exercise reverses depression-like behavior more quickly than fluoxetine treatment and whether this rapid effect is achieved ...

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Effects of exercise training on behavior and brain function after high dose isoproterenol-induced cardiac damage

Acute sympathetic stress can result in cardiac fibrosis, but may also lead to mental dysfunction. Exercise training after isoproterenol (ISO)-induced acute sympathetic stress was investigated regarding cardiac damage, neuroinflammation, brain function and behavior. Male Wistar rats (12 months) received ISO or saline. One week later, treadmill running or control handling (sedentary) started. After 4 weeks, cognitive- and exploratory behavior were evaluated, and heart and brain tissues were analyzed ...

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Exercise reduces systemic immune inflammation index (SII) in childhood cancer patients

While exercise and physical activity have been suggested to reduce mortality and symptoms in cancer, knowledge on these associations in patients with childhood cancer (CCPs) is sparse. Anti-inflammatory properties of exercise might mediate these beneficial effects. We investigated the influence of exercise on the inflammation markers neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and systemic-immune-inflammation index (SII) and associations to patient-reported-outcomes in CCPs in a ...

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The importance of protein sources to support muscle anabolism in cancer: An expert group opinion

This opinion paper presents a short review of the potential impact of protein on muscle anabolism in cancer, which is associated with better patient outcomes. Protein source is a topic of interest for patients and clinicians, partly due to recent emphasis on the supposed non-beneficial effect of proteins; therefore, misconceptions involving animal-based (e.g., meat, fish, dairy) and plant-based (e.g., legumes) proteins in cancer are acknowledged and addressed. Although the optimal dietary amino acid ...

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Are people who use active modes of transportation more physically active? An overview of reviews across the life course

Regular physical activity prevents several non-communicable chronic conditions and premature mortality. The benefits of physical activity can be achieved through active transport, which refers to non-motorised/active means (e.g. walking, cycling, rollerblading) to move from one place to another. Active transport can be integrated into daily routines such as commuting to and from school and work. We undertook an overview of reviews to examine the association between active transport and physical activity ...

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Dose Response of Acute ATP Supplementation on Strength Training Performance

Background: Chronic oral ATP supplementation benefits cardiovascular health, muscular performance, body composition, and recovery while attenuating muscle breakdown and fatigue. A single 400 mg dose of oral ATP supplementation improved lower body resistance training performance and energy expenditure in recreational resistance trained males, however, the minimal effective dose is currently unknown. Materials and Methods: Twenty recreationally trained men (age 28.6 ± 1.0 years, body mass 81.2 ...

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Resistance training induces similar adaptations of upper and lower-body muscles between sexes

The purpose of the study was to compare sex adaptations in hypertrophy, strength and contractile properties of upper and lower-body muscles induced by resistance training (RT). Eighteen RT untrained male (MG) and female (FG) students (aged 24.1 ± 1.7 years, height: 1.75 ± 0.08 m, weight: 70.4 ± 12.3 kg) undervent 7 weeks of biceps curl and squat training (2 days/week, 60–70% repetition maximum, 3–4 sets, 120 s rest intervals, ...

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Myostatin and Sarcopenia in Elderly Among Haemodyalisis Patient

Background and Objective: Increased serum myostatin level might be one of the causes of impaired protein synthesis and protein degradation associated with decreased muscle mass accompanying older age, which is a component of sarcopenia in CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis. There are still very limited number of studies with varying and contradictory results. This study aims to analyze the relationship between serum myostatin and sarcopenia levels in elderly chronic kidney disease patients undergoing ...

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Metabolic responsiveness to training depends on insulin sensitivity and protein content of exosomes in insulin-resistant males

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), but its impact on metabolism remains unclear. We hypothesized that 12-week HIIT increases insulin sensitivity in males with or without type 2 diabetes [T2D and NDM (nondiabetic humans)]. However, despite identically higher VO2max, mainly insulin-resistant (IR) persons (T2D and IR NDM) showed distinct alterations of circulating small extracellular vesicles (SEVs) along with lower inhibitory metabolic (protein kinase ...

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High-intensity training induces non-stoichiometric changes in the mitochondrial proteome of human skeletal muscle without reorganisation of respiratory chain content

Mitochondrial defects are implicated in multiple diseases and aging. Exercise training is an accessible, inexpensive therapeutic intervention that can improve mitochondrial bioenergetics and quality of life. By combining multiple omics techniques with biochemical and in silico normalisation, we removed the bias arising from the training-induced increase in mitochondrial content to unearth an intricate and previously undemonstrated network of differentially prioritised mitochondrial adaptations. We ...

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Genomics and transcriptomics landscapes associated to changes in insulin sensitivity in response to endurance exercise training

Despite good adherence to supervised endurance exercise training (EET), some individuals experience no or little improvement in peripheral insulin sensitivity. The genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are currently not understood. By investigating genome-wide variants associated with baseline and exercise-induced changes (∆) in insulin sensitivity index (Si) in healthy volunteers, we have identified novel candidate genes whose mouse knockouts phenotypes were consistent with ...

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The ups and downs of caloric restriction and fasting: from molecular effects to clinical application

Age-associated diseases are rising to pandemic proportions, exposing the need for efficient and low-cost methods to tackle these maladies at symptomatic, behavioral, metabolic, and physiological levels. While nutrition and health are closely intertwined, our limited understanding of how diet precisely influences disease often precludes the medical use of specific dietary interventions. Caloric restriction (CR) has approached clinical application as a powerful, yet simple, dietary modulation that ...

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Effects of Exercise Type and Intensity on Visfatin and the Metabolic Syndrome in Obesity

Objective: Visfatin may regulate a variety of physiological functions and it has great potential to significantly enhance our knowledge of the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome (MS) refers to metabolic abnormalities, such as abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, high low-density cholesterol, high blood pressure and diabetes, and physical activity is an important factor for the management of MS. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of visfatin on MS and MS ...

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Ursolic acid does not change the cytokine levels following resistance training in healthy men: A pilot balanced, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial

Ursolic acid (UA) is a natural compound that shows anti-inflammatory actions. However, no human studies have investigated the cytokine profile during the RT and UA consumption. The purpose of this study was to verify if UA is able to potentiate the anti-inflammatory activity after RT, reflecting in the reduction of blood inflammatory markers in healthy men. Twenty-seven participants were allocated to two groups: control (CON) (n = 13) and UA (n = 14). For 8 weeks, each group performed RT and consumed ...

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Mucin secretory action of capsaicin prevents high fat diet-induced gut barrier dysfunction in C57BL/6 mice colon

The gut barrier – including tight junction proteins (TJPs) and mucus layers, is the first line of defense against physical, chemical or pathogenic incursions. This barrier is compromised in various health disorders. Capsaicin, a dietary agonist of Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel, is reported to alleviate the complications of obesity. While it is well known to improve energy expenditure and metabolism, and prevent dysbiosis, the more local effects on the host gut – ...

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Egg and saturated fat containing breakfasts have no acute effect on acute glycemic control in healthy adults: a randomized partial crossover trial

Background/Objectives: High egg consumption is associated with poor glycemic control. Considering the widespread consumption of eggs, it is crucial to determine causality in this association. We tested if egg consumption acutely alters glucose disposal in the absence or presence of saturated fat, which is frequently consumed with eggs. Subjects/Methods: In a randomized partial crossover clinical trial, 48 subjects (consuming ≥ 1 egg/week) received two of four isocaloric, macronutrient-matched ...

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Is Obesity/Adiposity-Based Chronic Disease Curable: The Set Point Theory, the Environment, and Second Generation Medications

Adiposity-Based Chronic Disease (ABCD) is a chronic disease and requires life-long treatment and follow-up. Obesity protects obesity through altered regulation of caloric intake and set point mechanisms that maintains a high equilibrium body weight. Lifestyle interventions and obesity medications do not permanently alter the set point which often makes weight loss achieved by lifestyle short-lived and operates to drive weight regain once medications are discontinued. Bariatric surgery procedures ...

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Health Effects of Increasing Protein Intake Above the Current Population Reference Intake in Older Adults: A Systematic Review of the Health Council of the Netherlands

Whether older adults need more protein than younger adults is debated. The population reference intake for adults set by the European Food Safety Authority is 0.83 g/kg body weight (BW)/d based primarily on nitrogen balance studies, but the underlying data on health outcomes are outdated. An expert committee of the Health Council of the Netherlands conducted a systematic review (SR) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effect of increased protein intake on health outcomes in older ...

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Acute exercise increases immune responses to SARS CoV-2 in a previously infected man

Evidence is emerging that exercise and physical activity provides protection against severe COVID-19 disease in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, but it is not known how exercise affects immune responses to the virus. A healthy man completed a graded cycling ergometer test prior to and after SARS-CoV-2 infection, then again after receiving an adenovirus vector-based COVID-19 vaccine. Using whole blood SARS-CoV-2 peptide stimulation assays, IFN-γ ELISPOT assays, flow cytometry, ex vivo viral-specific ...

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Moderate exercise may prevent the development of severe forms of COVID-19, whereas high-intensity exercise may result in the opposite

Sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of hospitalization for COVID-19 independently of other factors. There is enough statistics to show that exercise prevents severe forms of COVID-19, but current recommendations do not set an upper limit for exercise intensity. The hypothesis presented in the paper states that intense exercise, through blood hypoxia, increases the expression of transmembrane angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (tACE2) in the vascular endothelium, increasing the risk of developing ...

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Effectiveness of Multicomponent Exercise Interventions in Older Adults With Dementia: A Meta-Analysis

Background and Objectives: Multicomponent training (MT) combines aerobic, strength, postural, and balance exercises and may be a promising intervention strategy for dementia. This meta-analysis study aims to systematize evidence concerning the effectiveness of MT in physical fitness, cognition, and functionality on activities of daily living (ADL) in older adults with dementia and to identify moderation patterns regarding training variables. Research Design and Methods: 4 databases were systematically ...

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Calorie Restriction With Exercise Intervention Improves Inflammatory Response in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Background/Purpose: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we assessed the effects of exercise (EX) combined with calorie restriction (CR) intervention on inflammatory biomarkers, and correlations between biomarkers and participants’ characteristics were calculated in overweight and obese adults. Methods: An article search was conducted through PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, the Cochrane database, Scopus, and Google Scholar to identify articles published up to April 2021. Studies that ...

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Acute Aerobic Exercise Induces Short-Term Reductions in Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Patients With Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Chronic exercise reduces clinic and ambulatory blood pressure (BP), but the short-term effects of an acute exercise bout on ambulatory BP have not been studied widely. We reviewed the literature regarding the short-term effects of acute exercise on ambulatory BP in patients with hypertension and considered moderating factors (medication status and exercise modality/intensity) on ambulatory BP outcomes. A systematic search was conducted (PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Scopus; since inception to January ...

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Epigenetic interaction between UTX and DNMT1 regulates diet-induced myogenic remodeling in brown fat

Brown adipocytes share the same developmental origin with skeletal muscle. Here we find that a brown adipocyte-to-myocyte remodeling also exists in mature brown adipocytes, and is induced by prolonged high fat diet (HFD) feeding, leading to brown fat dysfunction. This process is regulated by the interaction of epigenetic pathways involving histone and DNA methylation. In mature brown adipocytes, the histone demethylase UTX maintains persistent demethylation of the repressive mark H3K27me3 at Prdm16 ...

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Psychological and biological resilience modulates the effects of stress on epigenetic aging

Our society is experiencing more stress than ever before, leading to both negative psychiatric and physical outcomes. Chronic stress is linked to negative long-term health consequences, raising the possibility that stress is related to accelerated aging. In this study, we examine whether resilience factors affect stress-associated biological age acceleration. Recently developed “epigenetic clocks” such as GrimAge have shown utility in predicting biological age and mortality. Here, we ...

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Asparagine reinforces mTORC1 signaling to boost thermogenesis and glycolysis in adipose tissues

Brown and beige fat are specialized for energy expenditure by dissipating energy from glucose and fatty acid oxidation as heat. While glucose and fatty acid metabolism have been extensively studied in thermogenic adipose tissues, the involvement of amino acids in regulating adaptive thermogenesis remains little studied. Here, we report that asparagine supplementation in brown and beige adipocytes drastically upregulated the thermogenic transcriptional program and lipogenic gene expression, so that ...

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Lipolysis: cellular mechanisms for lipid mobilization from fat stores

The perception that intracellular lipolysis is a straightforward process that releases fatty acids from fat stores in adipose tissue to generate energy has experienced major revisions over the last two decades. The discovery of new lipolytic enzymes and coregulators, the demonstration that lipophagy and lysosomal lipolysis contribute to the degradation of cellular lipid stores and the characterization of numerous factors and signalling pathways that regulate lipid hydrolysis on transcriptional and ...

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The impact of muscle mass loss and deteriorating physical function on prognosis in patients receiving hemodialysis

Muscle mass loss and worsening physical function are crucial issues in patients receiving hemodialysis (HD). However, few studies have investigated the association between temporal changes in muscle mass and physical function in a large number of HD patients. We examined 286 patients receiving HD (males, 58%; age, 66.8 ± 13.0 years) at a single center, and calculated the percent changes in psoas muscle mass index (%PMI) using computed tomography over two screenings, once per ...

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Obesity risk is associated with altered cerebral glucose metabolism and decreased μ-opioid and CB1 receptor availability

Background: Obesity is a pressing public health concern worldwide. Novel pharmacological means are urgently needed to combat the increase of obesity and accompanying type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although fully established obesity is associated with neuromolecular alterations and insulin resistance in the brain, potential obesity-promoting mechanisms in the central nervous system have remained elusive. In this triple-tracer positron emission tomography study, we investigated whether brain insulin signaling, ...

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The manifold roles of protein S-nitrosylation in the life of insulin

Insulin, which is released by pancreatic islet β-cells in response to elevated levels of glucose in the blood, is a critical regulator of metabolism. Insulin triggers the uptake of glucose and fatty acids into the liver, adipose tissue and muscle, and promotes the storage of these nutrients in the form of glycogen and lipids. Dysregulation of insulin synthesis, secretion, transport, degradation or signal transduction all cause failure to take up and store nutrients, resulting in type 1 diabetes ...

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Brown adipose tissue prevents glucose intolerance and cardiac remodeling in high-fat-fed mice after a mild myocardial infarction

Background: Obesity increases the risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) after myocardial infarction (MI). Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is important to combat obesity and T2D, and increasing BAT mass by transplantation improves glucose metabolism and cardiac function. The objective of this study was to determine if BAT had a protective effect on glucose tolerance and cardiac function in high-fat diet (HFD) fed mice subjected to a mild MI. Methods: Male C57BL/6 ...

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Intramuscular fat in gluteus maximus for different levels of physical activity

We aimed to determine if gluteus maximus (GMAX) fat infiltration is associated with different levels of physical activity. Identifying and quantifying differences in the intramuscular fat content of GMAX in subjects with different levels of physical activity can provide a new tool to evaluate hip muscles health. This was a cross-sectional study involving seventy subjects that underwent Dixon MRI of the pelvis. The individuals were divided into four groups by levels of physical activity, from low ...

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Effects of yoga in men with prostate cancer on quality of life and immune response: a pilot randomized controlled trial

Background: Diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer is associated with anxiety, fear, and depression in up to one-third of men. Yoga improves health-related quality of life (QoL) in patients with several types of cancer, but evidence of its efficacy in enhancing QoL is lacking in prostate cancer. Methods: In this randomized controlled study, 29 men newly diagnosed with localized prostate cancer were randomized to yoga for 6 weeks (n = 14) or standard-of-care (n = 15) ...

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Low-frequency exercise training improves cardiovascular fitness and strength during treatment for breast cancer: a single-arm intervention study

Aerobic and resistance exercise during and after cancer treatment are important for health-related outcomes, however treatment-specific barriers may inhibit adherence. We explored the effect of lower-frequency exercise training on fitness, body composition, and metabolic markers (i.e. glucose and lipids) in a group of recently diagnosed breast cancer patients. Fifty-two females ≥ 18 years with stage I–IIIB breast cancer were instructed to attend 2 cardiovascular and strength ...

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The Metabolic Signature of Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Systematic Review

Background: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a potent health marker, the improvement of which is associated with a reduced incidence of non-communicable diseases and all-cause mortality. Identifying metabolic signatures associated with CRF could reveal how CRF fosters human health and lead to the development of novel health-monitoring strategies. Objective: This article systematically reviewed reported associations between CRF and metabolites measured in human tissues and body fluids. Methods: ...

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Changes in white matter microstructure and MRI-derived cerebral blood flow after 1-week of exercise training

Exercise is beneficial for brain health, inducing neuroplasticity and vascular plasticity in the hippocampus, which is possibly mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. Here we investigated the short-term effects of exercise, to determine if a 1-week intervention is sufficient to induce brain changes. Fifteen healthy young males completed five supervised exercise training sessions over seven days. This was preceded and followed by a multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ...

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The KRAB Domain-Containing Protein ZFP961 Represses Adipose Thermogenesis and Energy Expenditure through Interaction with PPARα

Adipose thermogenesis plays a pivotal role in whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Although transcriptional mechanisms that promote thermogenesis are extensively studied, the negative regulatory network is still poorly understood. Here, a Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) domain-containing zinc finger protein, ZFP961, as a potent repressor of the thermogenic program is identified. ZFP961 expression is induced by cold and β3-adrenergic agonist in adipose tissue. ZFP961 represses brown fat-selective ...

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Endurance exercise training-responsive miR-19b-3p improves skeletal muscle glucose metabolism

Skeletal muscle is a highly adaptable tissue and remodels in response to exercise training. Using short RNA sequencing, we determine the miRNA profile of skeletal muscle from healthy male volunteers before and after a 14-day aerobic exercise training regime. Among the exercise training-responsive miRNAs identified, miR-19b-3p was selected for further validation. Overexpression of miR-19b-3p in human skeletal muscle cells increases insulin signaling, glucose uptake, and maximal oxygen consumption, ...

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AMPK activator O304 improves metabolic and cardiac function, and exercise capacity in aged mice

Age is associated with progressively impaired, metabolic, cardiac and vascular function, as well as reduced work/exercise capacity, mobility, and hence quality of life. Exercise exhibit positive effects on age-related dysfunctions and diseases. However, for a variety of reasons many aged individuals are unable to engage in regular physical activity, making the development of pharmacological treatments that mimics the beneficial effects of exercise highly desirable. Here we show that the pan-AMPK ...

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Right heart exercise-training-adaptation and remodelling in endurance athletes

Long-term sports training leads to myocardial adaptations, with remodelling of the heart chambers. However, while myocardial adaptations of the left heart are well described, remodelling of the right heart and its impact on the development of arrhythmias is still debated. To conduct a systematic review on right ventricle (RV) and right atrium (RA) structural and functional changes in athletes who participate in long-term endurance training. Systematic review. A systematic literature search was conducted. ...

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Moderate-intensity exercise alleviates pyroptosis by promoting autophagy in osteoarthritis via the P2X7/AMPK/mTOR axis

Instability and excessive use of the knee joint can cause osteoarthritis (OA). Reasonable exercise can enhance the stability of the knee joint and prevent and relieve the occurrence and development of OA. As a key switch for inflammation, P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7) has attracted much attention in studies of OA. Exercise can regulate P2X7 expression and activation. However, the role of P2X7 in exercise-based prevention and treatment of OA is unknown. We previously showed that moderate-intensity exercise ...

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Exercise effects on muscle quality in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

To systematically review and analyse the effects of exercise on morphological and neuromuscular muscle quality (MQ) outcomes in older adults and assess a range of possible moderators that may affect the impact of exercise on MQ outcomes. Using PRISMA guidelines, randomised controlled trials were searched in CINAHL, EMBASE, LILACS, PubMed, SciELO, Web of Science, MedNar, OpenGrey and OpenThesis databases. Eligible trials examined the effects of exercise interventions on morphological and neuromuscular ...

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Timing of objectively-collected physical activity in relation to body weight and metabolic health in sedentary older people: a cross-sectional and prospective analysis

Background: Little is known about the impact of timing as opposed to frequency and intensity of daily physical activity on metabolic health. Therefore, we assessed the association between accelerometery-based daily timing of physical activity and measures of metabolic health in sedentary older people. Methods: Hourly mean physical activity derived from wrist-worn accelerometers over a 6-day period was collected at baseline and after 3 months in sedentary participants from the Active and Healthy ...

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The combination of acute exercise and eye closure has a synergistic effect on alpha activity

Acute aerobic exercise increases the brain cortical activity in alpha frequency. Eye closure also increases alpha activity. However, whether the two have an additive or a synergistic effect on alpha activity has never been explored. This study observed electroencephalography (EEG) from fifteen participants seated on the cycle ergometer before, during, and after a cycling exercise with the eyes open and with them closed. Exercise intensity was set to a target heart rate (120–130 bpm), corresponding ...

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Home-Based HIIT and Traditional MICT Prescriptions Improve Cardiorespiratory Fitness to a Similar Extent Within an Exercise Referral Scheme for At-Risk Individuals

Exercise referral schemes (ERS) are used to promote physical activity within primary care. Traditionally, ERS are conducted in a gym or leisure-center setting, with exercise prescriptions based on moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). Home-based high-intensity interval training (Home-HIIT) has the potential to reduce perceived barriers to exercise, including lack of time and access to facilities, compared to traditional MICT prescription used with ERS and improve health related outcomes. ...

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Impacts of essential amino acids on energy balance

Background: Obesity develops due to an imbalance in energy homeostasis, wherein energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. Increasing evidence shows that manipulations of dietary protein and their component amino acids affect the energy balance, resulting in changes in fat mass and body weight. Amino acids are not only the building blocks of proteins but also serve as signals regulating multiple biological pathways. Scope of review: We present the current available knowledge regarding the effects ...

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Effects of Exercise Training on Neurotrophic Factors and Subsequent Neuroprotection in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Background: Evidence indicates that exercise holds the potential to counteract neurodegeneration experienced by persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS), which is in part believed to be mediated through increases in neurotrophic factors. There is a need to summarize the existing evidence on exercise-induced effects on neurotrophic factors alongside neuroprotection in pwMS. Aim: To (1) systematically review the evidence on acute (one session) and/or chronic (several sessions) exercise-induced changes ...

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Physical Exercise Potentially Targets Epicardial Adipose Tissue to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Patients with Metabolic Diseases: Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Emerge as Major Therapeutic Targets

Excess epicardial adiposity, within a state of obesity and metabolic syndrome, is emerging as an important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Accordingly, increased epicardial fat thickness (EFT) implicates the exacerbation of pathological mechanisms involving oxidative stress and inflammation within the heart, which may accelerate the development of CVDs. This explains increased interest in targeting EFT reduction to attenuate the detrimental effects of oxidative ...

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Effects of Vitamin D in Post-Exercise Muscle Recovery. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Vitamin D is a key micronutrient modulating function and health in skeletal muscle. Therefore, we sought to systematically review the role of vitamin D in muscle recovery. A search in different databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, WOS, Google Scholar, and Scopus) was carried out following PRISMA® and PICOS. The search period was from inception to April 2020. Changes in post-exercise muscle damage were quantified comparing experimental group vs. placebo in each study by using number of participants, standardized ...

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Irisin Is Correlated with Blood Pressure in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients

Background. Despite approximately 95% primary cases of hypertension, secondary hypertension seems to be common with resistant forms. Notably, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is known as a common cause of secondary hypertension and has a major characteristic of obesity. Irisin acts as a link between muscles and adipose tissues in obesity, playing an essential role in human blood pressure (BP) regulation. However, whether irisin is associated with secondary hypertension caused by OSA and how it takes ...

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Integrated genomic and proteomic analyses identify stimulus-dependent molecular changes associated with distinct modes of skeletal muscle atrophy

Skeletal muscle atrophy is a debilitating condition that occurs with aging and disease, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Previous work determined that common transcriptional changes occur in muscle during atrophy induced by different stimuli. However, whether this holds true at the proteome level remains largely unexplored. Here, we find that, contrary to this earlier model, distinct atrophic stimuli (corticosteroids, cancer cachexia, and aging) induce largely different ...

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Pattern of Adiponectin, Osteocalcin, Irisin, FGF-21, and MCP-1 According to the Body Size Phenotype: Could They Be Markers of Metabolic Health in Mexican-Mestizo Middle-Aged Women?

Variations in levels of some adipokines, myokines, osteokines, hepatokines and inflammatory cytokines contribute to abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of adiponectin, osteocalcin (OCN), irisin, FGF-21, and MCP-1 according to the body size phenotype of middle-aged women, and their associations with BMI, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and HOMA-IR. A cross-sectional study in 265 women aged from 40 to 65 years was performed. The biochemical characteristics ...

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The New Myokine Myonectin is Significantly Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in Elderly Patients

Introduction: The novel myokine myonectin is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and is involved in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. A putative association between myonectin and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been discussed controversially in current literature. Hypothesis: We hypothesize that there is an association between myonectin and T2DM at different ages - this is addressed in the present study. Methods: We measured myonectin in 410 vascular risk patients with a mean ...

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Impact of Exercise on Gut Microbiota in Obesity

Physical activity, exercise, or physical fitness are being studied as helpful nonpharmacological therapies to reduce signaling pathways related to inflammation. Studies describing changes in intestinal microbiota have stated that physical activity could increase the microbial variance and enhance the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes, and both actions could neutralize the obesity progression and diminish body weight. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the literature describing the ...

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The Impact of Dysmetabolic Sarcopenia Among Insulin Sensitive Tissues: A Narrative Review

Sarcopenia is a common muscular affection among elderly individuals. More recently, it has been recognized as the skeletal muscle (SM) expression of the metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of sarcopenia is increasing along with visceral obesity, to which it is tightly associated. Nonetheless, it is a still underreported entity by clinicians, despite the worsening in disease burden and reduced patient quality of life. Recognition of sarcopenia is clinically challenging, and variability in study populations ...

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Effects of Low Doses of L-Carnitine Tartrate and Lipid Multi-Particulate Formulated Creatine Monohydrate on Muscle Protein Synthesis in Myoblasts and Bioavailability in Humans and Rodents

The primary objective of this study was to investigate the potential synergy between low doses of L-carnitine tartrate and creatine monohydrate to induce muscle protein synthesis and anabolic pathway activation in primary human myoblasts. In addition, the effects of Lipid multi-particulates (LMP) formulation on creatine stability and bioavailability were assessed in rodents and healthy human subjects. When used individually, L-carnitine tartrate at 50 µM and creatine monohydrate at 0.5 µM ...

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LRG1 is an adipokine that mediates obesity-induced hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance

Dysregulation in adipokine biosynthesis and function contributes to obesity-induced metabolic diseases. However, the identities and functions of many of the obesity-induced secretory molecules remain unknown. Here, we report the identification of leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein 1 (LRG1) as an obesity-associated adipokine that exacerbates high fat diet-induced hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance. Serum levels of LRG1 were markedly elevated in obese humans and mice compared to their respective ...

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Long-Term Evolution of Malnutrition and Loss of Muscle Strength after COVID-19: A Major and Neglected Component of Long COVID-19

Post-acute consequences of COVID-19, also termed long COVID, include signs and symptoms persisting for more than 12 weeks with prolonged multisystem involvement; most often, however, malnutrition is ignored. Method: The objective was to analyze persistent symptoms, nutritional status, the evolution of muscle strength and performance status (PS) at 6 months post-discharge in a cohort of COVID-19 survivors. Results: Of 549 consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19 between 1 March and 29 April ...

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Leptin receptor defect with diabetes causes skeletal muscle atrophy in female obese Zucker rats where peculiar depots networked with mitochondrial damages

Tibialis anterior muscles of 45-week-old female obese Zucker rats with defective leptin receptor and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) showed a significative atrophy compared to lean muscles, based on histochemical-stained section’s measurements in the sequence: oxidative slow twitch (SO, type I) < oxidative fast twitch (FOG, type IIa) < fast glycolytic (FG, type IIb). Both oxidative fiber’s outskirts resembled ‘ragged’ fibers and, in these zones, ultrastructure ...

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The Response of Mitochondrial Respiration and Quantity in Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue to Exercise in Humans with Prediabetes

Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, but its contribution to the early stages of dysglycemia remains poorly understood. By collecting a high-resolution stage-based spectrum of dysglycemia, our study fills this gap by evaluating derangement in both the function and quantity of mitochondria. We sampled mitochondria in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissues of subjects with progressive advancement of dysglycemia under a three-month ...

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Sex differences in metabolic pathways are regulated by Pfkfb3 and Pdk4 expression in rodent muscle

Skeletal muscles display sexually dimorphic features. Biochemically, glycolysis and fatty acid β-oxidation occur preferentially in the muscles of males and females, respectively. However, the mechanisms of the selective utilization of these fuels remains elusive. Here, we obtain transcriptomes from quadriceps type IIB fibers of untreated, gonadectomized, and sex steroid-treated mice of both sexes. Analyses of the transcriptomes unveil two genes, Pfkfb3 (phosphofructokinase-2) and Pdk4 (pyruvate ...

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Muscle Contractile Properties Measured at Submaximal Electrical Amplitudes and Not at Supramaximal Amplitudes Are Associated with Repeated Sprint Performance and Fatigue Markers

Background: The present study analyzes the associations between the muscle contractile properties (MCP) measured at different neuromuscular electrical stimulation amplitudes (NMESa) and the performance or transient fatigue after a bout of repeated sprints. Methods: Seventeen physically active male subjects performed six repeated sprints of 30 m with 30 s of passive recovery. Capillary blood creatine kinase (CK) concentration, knee extension or flexion isometric peak torque, tensiomyography, and repeated ...

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Effects of In Vitro Muscle Contraction on Thermogenic Protein Levels in Co‐Cultured Adipocytes

The crosstalk between the exercising muscle and the adipose tissue, mediated by myokines and metabolites, derived from both tissues during exercise has created a controversy between animal and human studies with respect to the impact of exercise on the browning process. The aim of this study was to investigate whether co-culturing of C2C12 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes under the stimuli of electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) mimicking muscle contraction can impact the expression of UCP1, PGC-1a, ...

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