Pharmacological and physiological roles of adipokines and myokines in metabolic-related dementia

Dementia is a detrimental neuropathologic condition with considerable physical, mental, social, and financial impact on patients and society. Patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), a group of diseases that occur in tandem and increase the risk of neurologic diseases, have a higher risk of dementia. The ratio between muscle and adipose tissue is crucial in MetS, as these contain many hormones, including myokines and adipokines, which are involved in crosstalk and local paracrine/autocrine interactions. Evidence suggests that abnormal adipokine and myokine synthesis and release may be implicated in various MetS, such as atherosclerosis, diabetic mellitus (DM), and dyslipidemia, but their precise role is unclear. Here we review the literature on adipokine and myokine involvement in MetS-induced dementia via glucose and insulin homeostasis regulation, neuroinflammation, vascular dysfunction, emotional changes, and cognitive function.