Results of experimental studies have shown that β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA), an exercise-induced myokine-like molecule, is an endogenous negative regulator of fat mass in mice, but it remains unclear whether that is the case in humans, though an enhanced BAIBA concentration in patients receiving sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors was found in our recent study. The objective of this study was to analyze the determinants of circulating BAIBA concentration in humans, with focus on the possible link between circulating BAIBA and body composition including fat mass. Data for 188 consecutive patients with heart failure (HF, 64 ± 13 years; 70% male) who received a dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan for assessment of body composition including fat mass index (FMI) and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI) were used in this study. Plasma BAIBA concentration in a fasting state after stabilization of HF was determined using ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Plasma BAIBA was detected in 66% of the patients. In simple linear regression analyses of data from patients in whom plasma BAIBA was detected, plasma BAIBA concentration was positively correlated with uric acid and was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), FMI, and % body fat. There were no correlations between plasma BAIBA concentration and indexes of muscle mass and bone mass. The results of multiple linear regression analyses showed that FMI and % body fat in addition to BMI, but not ASMI, were independent explanatory factors for plasma BAIBA concentration. In conclusion, plasma BAIBA concentration is inversely correlated with indexes of fat mass, indicating that BAIBA may be a therapeutic target for excessive fat accumulation.