Potential role of irisin in digestive system diseases

Digestive system diseases (DSD) are very complex conditions that severely threaten human health. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new pharmacological treatment strategies. Irisin, a myokine discovered in 2012, is produced by fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5), which is a transmembrane protein. Irisin is involved in promoting the browning of white adipose tissue, the regulation of energy metabolism, and the improvement of insulin resistance. Irisin is also an essential mediator of the inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and cell apoptosis. Recent studies have proved that irisin concentration is altered in DSD and exerts pivotal effects on the initiation, progression, and prognosis of these diseases through various mechanisms. Therefore, studying the expression and function of irisin may have great significance for the diagnosis and treatment of DSD. Here, we focus on irisin and explore the multiple molecular pathways targeted by irisin therapy. This review indicates that irisin can serve as a diagnostic marker or potential therapeutic agent for DSD.