A systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrating Klotho as an emerging exerkine

Klotho is an anti-aging protein with several therapeutic roles in the pathophysiology of different organs, such as the skeletal muscle and kidneys. Available evidence suggests that exercise increases Klotho levels, regardless of the condition or intervention, shedding some light on this anti-aging protein as an emergent and promising exerkine. Development of a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to verify the role of different exercise training protocols on the levels of circulating soluble Klotho (S-Klotho) protein. A systematic search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE through PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, CT.gov, and PEDro. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that investigated effects of exercise training on S-Klotho levels. We included 12 reports in the analysis, comprising 621 participants with age ranging from 30 to 65 years old. Klotho concentration increased significantly after chronic exercise training (minimum of 12 weeks) (Hedge’ g [95%CI] 1.3 [0.69–1.90]; P < 0.0001). Moreover, exercise training increases S-Klotho values regardless of the health condition of the individual or the exercise intervention, with the exception of combined aerobic + resistance training. Furthermore, protocol duration and volume seem to influence S-Klotho concentration, since the effect of the meta-analysis changes when subgrouping these variables. Altogether, circulating S-Klotho protein is altered after chronic exercise training and it might be considered an exerkine. However, this effect may be influenced by different training configurations, including protocol duration, volume, and intensity.