Influence of concurrent and functional training on miR-1/miR-126 gene expression and cardiovascular function in postmenopausal women

Document Type : Original Article


1 Professor at Exercise Physiology, Exercise Physiology Department, Sport Sciences Faculty, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor at Exercise Physiology, Exercise Physiology Department, Sport Sciences Faculty, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor at Exercise Physiology, Exercise Physiology Department, Sport Sciences Faculty, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.

4 Ph.D. candidate at Exercise Physiology, Exercise Physiology Department, Sport Sciences Faculty, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran


It is becoming more important to understand the physiological processes that contribute to the emergence of risk factors associated with menopause, and to discover strategies for preventing and reversing them. The current research aimed to determine the impact of functional and concurrent training on miR-126/miR-1 gene expression, and cardiovascular function in middle-aged postmenopausal women. In this study, 24 women between the ages of 50 and 60 years old with a sedentary life style participated. The subjects were randomly divided into the control group, concurrent training group, and functional training group. The Control received no intervention, and the experimental groups performed selected training protocols for 12 weeks. Doppler ultrasound graphs were utilized after the interventions to evaluate the cardiovascular function. Also, 48 hours after experiment, the blood collection was taken to assess miR-126/miR-1 gene expression. To compare the variables, one-way ANOVA test followed by Tukey's post hoc test was used. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. The results showed that the training programs led to significant enhancements in FLOW-mediated dilation, and PSV (peak systolic velocity). Moreover, there was a significant decrease in the vascular stiffness in the participants after undergoing the training. Additionally, miR-1 and miR-126 gene expression were found to be increased in response to both training interventions. These findings suggest that concurrent and functional training may be an effective approach for reducing the risk of age-related diseases in menopausal women through promoting cardiovascular functions and miR-126/miR-1 gene expression elevation.

What is already known on this subject?

Physical activity is essential for maintaining a healthy cardiovascular system, which consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. By engaging in regular exercise, people can improve the function and structure of their cardiovascular system, as well as prevent or treat various diseases that affect it. Some of the positive effects of physical activity include reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, enhancing insulin sensitivity and metabolism, promoting stem cell repair, strengthening cellular energy production, increasing vascular dilation and blood flow, and enlarging and strengthening the heart muscle. Therefore, physical activity can help people achieve optimal cardiovascular health and well-being.


What this study adds?

Engaging in functional and concurrent exercise training can have beneficial outcomes, such as enhancing the levels of mir1 and miR-126, two types of microRNAs that are involved in regulating angiogenesis and inflammation, increasing PSV and FMD, two measures of vascular function that reflect the ability of blood vessels to dilate and respond to changes in blood flow, and lowering Stifnex index, a measure of arterial stiffness that indicates the risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, exercise can be regarded as a safe and effective way to improve the overall health and well-being of women who are going through menopause.


Main Subjects


We gratefully thank the subjects for their participation in this study.



Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval This study was approved by the Ethical Standards of the Institutional and/or National Research Committee (IR.SSRI.REC.1401.177).  Informed consent was obtained from all participants.

Informed consent Informed consent was taken from all subjects. 

Author contributions

Conceptualization: M.K, F.S, H.S, L.G.; Methodology: M.K, F.S, H.S, L.G.; Software: M.K, F.S, H.S, L.G.; Validation: M.K, F.S, H.S, L.G.; Formal analysis; M.K, F.S, H.S, L.G.; Investigation: M.K, F.S, H.S, L.G.; Resources: M.K, F.S, H.S, L.G.; Data curation: M.K, F.S, H.S, L.G.; Writing - original draft: M.K, F.S, H.S, L.G.; Writing – review & editing: M.K, F.S, H.S, L.G.; Visualization: M.K, F.S, H.S, L.G.; Supervision: L.G.; Project administration: L.G..; Funding acquisition: M.K.

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