The effect of an electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) session on changes in endostatin and vascular endothelial growth factor in inactive men

Document Type : Original Article


1 M.Sc. Department of Physical Education and Sport Science Yadegar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH) Shahre-rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Yadegar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH) Shahr-e Ray Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


The effectiveness of EMS on muscle and physical performance has been demonstrated in various populations, including healthy young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) session on changes in endostatin and vascular endothelial growth factor in inactive men. In this quasi-experimental research, 16 inactive healthy men (age, 20-30 years; BMI, 18 - 24.9 kg/m2) from Tehran were selected and randomly assigned to two EMS stimulation (n=8) and control (n=8) groups. The subjects performed the exercise (squat, lunge, crunch and plank) with WB-EMS clothes for 20 minutes; frequency 80 Hz, pulse 5 seconds and pulse pause 3 seconds. The levels of VEGF and endostatin in plasma were measured using kit and ELISA method. The data were analyzed using independent and correlated t-test at the P<0.05. The results showed that intragroup changes of endostatin and VEGF were significant after an EMS training session (P≤0.05), but not significant change was observed in the control group (P≥0.05). Also, the inter-group changes of endostatin showed no significant differences between the two groups in the post-test (P=0.1). However, the intergroup changes of VEGF indicated significant difference between the two groups in the post-test (P=0.001). It seems that in inactive people, EMS stimulation increases vascular endothelial growth factor as the most important positive regulator of the angiogenesis process and decreases endostatin as one of the most important negative regulators of the angiogenesis process.

What is already known on this subject?

The effectiveness of EMS on muscle and physical performance has been demonstrated in various populations, including healthy young adults.


What this study adds?

EMS stimulation increases vascular endothelial growth factor and decreases endostatin in inactive men.


Main Subjects


I hereby thank everyone who has helped me in this research.


There is no funding to report.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval All participants were provided, prior to commencement of the study, with information sheets explaining intent to publish, with option to receive copies of submitted manuscripts.

Informed consent done.

Author contributions

Conceptualization: M.N, S.Sh.; Methodology: M.N, S.Sh.; Software: M.N.; Validation: S.Sh.; Formal analysis: S.Sh.; Investigation: S.Sh.; Resources: M.N.; Data curation: M.N.; Writing - original draft: M.N, S.Sh.; Writing - review & editing: M.N, S.Sh.; Visualization: M.N.; Supervision: S.Sh.; Project administration: S.Sh.; Funding acquisition: S.Sh.

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