Exercise training in polluted environment: A narrative review with focus on combat physical fitness

Document Type : Review Articles


1 Exercise Physiology Research Center, Life Style Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.


Air pollution is one of the most important problems of recent decades, which has serious toxic effects on human health and the environment. Sources of pollution vary from small units of cigarettes and natural sources such as volcanic activity to large volumes of emissions from car engines and industrial activities or even radioactive ones. Today, there are various pollutants around the world that negatively affect human health. Walking and being in a polluted environment can increase the penetration of pollutants such as lead in the body. Increasing physical activity such as long-term running, which is widely used in some jobs such as military jobs, can increase the activity of muscle tissue, and as a result, the cardiovascular system becomes more active and helps absorb more pollutants. Lead acetate is a possible carcinogen in humans, which is absorbed into the human body by pollutants. There is evidence that lead compounds can cause lung, brain, stomach, and kidney cancer in humans. However, pollution does not include air pollution only, and noise pollution can endanger human health as well. Since some occupations such as those of military experience various types of noise, as well as chemical and radioactive pollution and the point that having high physical fitness is essential for these people, this study examined the impact of various pollutants on the military personnel and also sought to see whether exercising and having high physical fitness of military personnel can reduce the stress caused by the pollution.

What is already known on this subject?

Air pollution is one of the most important problems of recent decades, which has serious toxic effects on human health and the environment.


What this study adds?

Adaptation to the environment is one of the factors of environmental readiness and it means that the military has the knowledge, skills and appropriate behavior to protect themselves against stressful environments.


Main Subjects

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