A narrative review of fatigue in exercise training: Relation between different organs

Document Type : Review Articles


1 Phd Student, Department of Exercise Physiology, University of Guilan, Guilan, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Sport Physiology, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Islamic Azad University of Shoushtar, Shoushtar, Iran


One of the harmful factors that affect athletic performance is exercise-induced fatigue, which results from excessive stress and leads to reduced physical and mental function. Physical fatigue resulting from physical activities, especially sports activities, affect the human immune system. Because the immune system responds to physiological and psychological stress, and like other physiological systems in our body, it causes temporary disorders in response to a session of exercise. The immune system is also affected by the intensity, duration, and type of exercise. As a result of exercise that leads to extreme fatigue, It also may affect immune function by causing stress responses, including inflammation, and cause immune system defects. Leukocyte blood flow and functional capacity may decrease over a long time with repeated strenuous exercise, possibly due to increased levels of stress hormones during exercise. Decreased blood glutamine levels have also been suggested as a possible cause of deficiency in one or more of the immune systems associated with strenuous exercise, although the evidence is less convincing. Also, during exercise, the production of reactive oxygen species increases and some functions of immune cells can be disrupted by excess free radicals. During exercise, exposure to airborne pathogens is higher due to the speed and depth of respiration. Therefore, the increased prevalence of infection in athletes is probably due to several factors: a variety of stressors (physical, psychological, or environmental, nutritional) can suppress immune function, and these effect, along with increased exposure to pathogens.

What is already known on this subject?

One of the harmful factors that affect athletic performance is exercise-induced fatigue, which results from excessive stress and leads to reduced physical and mental function.


What this study adds?

The study of physiological changes during the process of muscle fatigue and central fatigue as well as the decline of immune system function indices in elite athletes and relatively active individuals indicates a large number of options as biomarkers of muscle fatigue and immune function.



Main Subjects

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Volume 1, Issue 3
December 2021
Pages 133-142
  • Receive Date: 10 November 2021
  • Revise Date: 08 December 2021
  • Accept Date: 22 December 2021
  • First Publish Date: 22 December 2021