Effects of eight-week progressive resistance training on physical fitness and psychological health in adolescent males

Document Type : Original Article


1 Center for Investigation, Formation, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport of the University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

2 Sports Sciences Faculty, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.


Physical fitness and psychosocial health might improve through resistance training programs. However, there has been controversy regarding the efficacy of different exercise programs. Therefore, this study attempted to compare the effect of 8-week resistance training with linear and undulating programming on physical fitness and mental health. Twenty-nine healthy and untrained students (age: 16.06±0.83) were randomly divided into three groups: (1) control (n= 6), (2) linear programmed resistance training (LPRT) (n= 12), and (3) undulating programmed resistance training (UPRT) (n= 11). After two weeks of familiarization, 1RM (one-maximum repetition) values were obtained. Thereafter, experimental groups attended a resistance training program of 3 sessions/week (lasted 60 min each) for 8 weeks. Both groups had a similar plan until the fourth week. Then, intensity increased up to 70% of 1RM on a weekly basis for the LPRT group, and varied on a daily basis for the UPRT group. Upper- and lower-extremities strength and endurance, balance, speed, explosive-power, lean body mass, general mental health (GSQ) and physical self-concept (PSCQ) were measured. Experimental groups produced significant improvements in physical outcomes, in comparison with the control group. There were no improvements in GSQ and PSCQ. There were no statistically significant differences between the two programs. Both linear and undulating programs improved physical fitness of previously sedentary adolescent males to a similar extent. For practical purposes, as long as loads are individually adjusted, the type of program may not be relevant in beginner practitioners. Furthermore, both models were ineffective in producing changes in the psychosocial variables.

What is already known on this subject?

As it was mentioned above, since resistance training is an effective procedure to increase muscle mass and strength, improve performance and stimulate healthy life-style in adolescents, it can be performed in different models such as linear or undulating model. Performing model of RT would make a challenge for coaches and young athletes. 


What this study adds?

Both RT program had similar effects on physical fitness factors and the results of the current study could recommend to coaches and young athletes to follow linear or undulating programs. In psychological aspects, we should keep ways to future studies with long-term periods.


Main Subjects

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Volume 1, Issue 3
December 2021
Pages 106-114
  • Receive Date: 08 October 2021
  • Revise Date: 08 November 2021
  • Accept Date: 29 November 2021
  • First Publish Date: 29 November 2021