Comparison the effect of TRX and traditional resistance training on responses some indices of muscle damage of soccer player

Document Type : Original Article


1 Association Professor, Department of Sport science, Faculty of Literature and Human Sciences, University of Qom, Qom, I.R. Iran.

2 Expert Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Department of Sport science, University of Qom, Qom, I.R. Iran.


The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two methods of resistance training TRX and traditional resistance on the response of some indicators of muscle damage in soccer players. The present study was a semi-experimental; therefore, 36 participants with mean age of 19/36±1/4 were voluntarily selected and assigned to two groups of TRX and traditional resistance training. The training program for both groups consisted of several joint movements, these movements in 2 sets, with 8 repetitions in to isometric form, and the duration of muscle tension in each movement was 20 seconds. Both groups were evaluated by biochemical, physical and anthropometric measurements in two stages of pre-test and post-test. Data analysis was done using independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test with the significant level of 0.05 (p≤0.05). Serum creatine kinase levels showed a significant increase in traditional resistance training group 54.01% (p=0.001) and in the TRX training group 58.19% (p=0.003). Serum lactate dehydrogenase levels increased significantly as the result of traditional resistance training (p=0.033) while Aspartate aminotransferase did not show any significant changes from pre-test to post-test in the experimental groups. Moreover, the results of the present study showed that there was no significant difference in the changes observed in the indices of muscle damage between a traditional training and TRX training. Therefore, performing TRX or traditional training is not improving muscle injury during training.

What is already known on this subject?

One of the consequences of resistance training, especially in the early stages of exercise, is delayed congestion that indicates an increase in inflammatory markers. Most players in sports, including soccer, use resistance training to increase their performance that may increase the risk of injury factors by factor aggregation while playing soccer. In fact, vigorous activities such as resistance training cause rupture and disruption of the normal structure of muscle proteins due to high metabolic and mechanical stress and increase the extracellular calcium concentration.


What this study adds?

TRX training and traditional resistance training have no superiority in terms of less impact on muscle injury and less increase in muscle injury index during exercise, and the use of these two types of training by football players is similar in terms of impact on muscle injury indicators.


Main Subjects

Andring, J. M. (2006). The consistency of inflammatory responses and muscle damage to high-force eccentric exercise. Montana State University-Bozeman, College of Education, Health & Human, URL:
Atashak, S., & Baturak, K. (2012). The effect of BCAA supplementation on serum C-reactive protein and creatine kinase after acute resistance exercise in soccer players. Annals of Biological Research, 3(3), 1569-1576. URL:
Azizbeigi Boukani, K., & Atashak, S. (2015). The Effect of Rest Intervals between Sets of Resistance Exercise on Plasma Antioxidant Capacity Changes and Cell Injury Index. Journal of Sport Biosciences, 7(2), 225-239. doi:
Barquilha, G., Uchida, M. C., Santos, V. C., Moura, N. R., Lambertucci, R. H., Hatanaka, E., . . . Hirabara, S. M. (2011). Characterization of the effects of one maximal repetition test on muscle injury and inflammation markers. doi:
Bompa, T., & Buzzichelli, C. (2015). Periodization training for sports, 3e: Human kinetics. URL:
Brancaccio, P., Lippi, G., & Maffulli, N. (2010). Biochemical markers of muscular damage. Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine, 48(6), 757-767. doi:
Callegari, G. A., Novaes, J. S., Neto, G. R., Dias, I., Garrido, N. D., & Dani, C. (2017). Creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase responses after different resistance and aerobic exercise protocols. Journal of human kinetics, 58, 65. URL:
Clarkson, P. M., Kearns, A. K., Rouzier, P., Rubin, R., & Thompson, P. D. (2006). Serum creatine kinase levels and renal function measures in exertional muscle damage. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 38(4), 623. doi:
Dolezal, B. A. (1998). Muscle damage and resting metabolic rate after acute resistance exercise with an eccentric overload: University of Kansas. doi:
Fatouros, I., Chatzinikolaou, A., Paltoglou, G., Petridou, A., Avloniti, A., Jamurtas, A., . . . Lazaropoulou, C. (2010). Acute resistance exercise results in catecholaminergic rather than hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis stimulation during exercise in young men. Stress, 13(6), 461-468. doi:
Fong, S. S., Tam, Y., Macfarlane, D. J., Ng, S. S., Bae, Y.-H., Chan, E. W., & Guo, X. (2015). Core muscle activity during TRX suspension exercises with and without kinesiology taping in adults with chronic low back pain: implications for rehabilitation. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine, 2015.  doi:
Helgerud, J., Engen, L. C., Wisloff, U., & Hoff, J. (2001). Aerobic endurance training improves soccer performance. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 33(11), 1925-1931. doi:
Helgerud, J., Høydal, K., Wang, E., Karlsen, T., Berg, P., Bjerkaas, M., . . . Bach, R. (2007). Aerobic high-intensity intervals improve V˙ O2max more than moderate training. Medicine & science in sports & exercise, 39(4), 665-671. doi:
Hunkin, S. L., Fahrner, B., & Gastin, P. B. (2014). Creatine kinase and its relationship with match performance in elite Australian Rules football. Journal of science and medicine in sport, 17(3), 332-336.  doi:
Jakobsen, M. D., Sundstrup, E., Persson, R., Andersen, C. H., & Andersen, L. L. (2014). Is Borg’s perceived exertion scale a useful indicator of muscular and cardiovascular load in blue-collar workers with lifting tasks? A cross-sectional workplace study. European journal of applied physiology, 114(2), 425-434. doi:
Janot, J., Heltne, T., Welles, C., Riedl, J., Anderson, H., Howard, A., & Myhre, S. L. (2013). Effects of TRX versus traditional resistance training programs on measures of muscular performance in adults. Journal of Fitness Research, 2(2), 23-38. URL:
Lowe, D. A., Warren, G. L., Hayes, D. A., Farmer, M. A., & Armstrong, R. (1994). Eccentric contraction-induced injury of mouse soleus muscle: effect of varying [Ca2+] o. Journal of Applied Physiology, 76(4), 1445-1453. doi:
Marcora, S., & Bosio, A. (2007). Effect of exercise‐induced muscle damage on endurance running performance in humans. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 17(6), 662-671.  doi:
Melrose, D., & Dawes, J. (2015). Resistance characteristics of the TRX TM suspension training system at different angles and distances from the hanging point. Journal of athletic enhancement, 4(1), 2-5. doi:
Nameni, F., Kashef, M., & Lari, A. (2004). The effect of warming on the relationship between CK and LDH in athletic women recovery. Olympic J, 4(28), 97-106.
Nieman, D. C., Henson, D. A., McAnulty, S. R., McAnulty, L., Swick, N. S., Utter, A. C., . . . Morrow, J. D. (2002). Influence of vitamin C supplementation on oxidative and immune changes after an ultramarathon. Journal of Applied Physiology, 92(5), 1970-1977. doi:
Nissen, S., Sharp, R., Ray, M., Rathmacher, J., Rice, D., Fuller Jr, J., . . . Abumrad, N. (1996). Effect of leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on muscle metabolism during resistance-exercise training. Journal of Applied Physiology, 81(5), 2095-2104. doi:
Pantoja, P. D., Alberton, C. L., Pilla, C., Vendrusculo, A. P., & Kruel, L. F. (2009). Effect of resistive exercise on muscle damage in water and on land. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 23(3), 1051-1054. doi:
Pardanjani, A., Ebrahimi, M., & Changizi, M. (2015). Effect of one session of resistance activity on muscle injury and delayed muscular soreness in athlete male students. Res Sports Edu, 8, 37-52.
Parikh, D., & Ramanathan, N. (1977). Exercise induced serum enzyme changes in untrained subjects. Indian journal of physiology and pharmacology, 21(3), 175-180. URL:
Pettersson, J., Hindorf, U., Persson, P., Bengtsson, T., Malmqvist, U., Werkström, V., & Ekelund, M. (2008). Muscular exercise can cause highly pathological liver function tests in healthy men. British journal of clinical pharmacology, 65(2), 253-259. doi:
Robinson, T. M., Sewell, D. A., Casey, A., Steenge, G., & Greenhaff, P. L. (2000). Dietary creatine supplementation does not affect some haematological indices, or indices of muscle damage and hepatic and renal function. British journal of sports medicine, 34(4), 284-288.  doi:
Santos, R., Bassit, R., Caperuto, E., & Rosa, L. C. (2004). The effect of creatine supplementation upon inflammatory and muscle soreness markers after a 30km race. Life sciences, 75(16), 1917-1924.  doi:
Scheett, T., Aartun, J., Thomas, D., Herrin, J., & Dudgeon, W. (2010). Physiological Markers as a Gauge of Intensity for Suspension Training Exercise: 2636: Board# 244 June 4 8: 00 AM-9: 30 AM. Medicine & science in sports & exercise, 42(5), 696. URL:
Seo, D.-i., Kim, E., Fahs, C. A., Rossow, L., Young, K., Ferguson, S. L., . . . Kim, D. (2012). Reliability of the one-repetition maximum test based on muscle group and gender. Journal of sports science & medicine. 11(2): 221–225. URL:
Shirvani, H., Rahimi, M., & Rostamkhani, F. (2015). Effect of a karate competition on indicators of inflammation and muscletissue injury in soldier's karate-ka. Journal of Military Medicine, 17(3), 137-143. doi:
Soleimani, A., Shakerian, S., & Ruhollah, R. (2017). Changes in muscle damage enzymes inactive overweight male students after exhausted aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences, 24(3), 190-198. doi:
Talaie, H., Pajouhmand, A., Abdollahi, M., Panahandeh, R., Emami, H., Hajinasrolah, S., & Tghaddosinezhad, M. (2007). Rhabdomyolysis among acute human poisoning cases. Human & experimental toxicology, 26(7), 557-561.  doi:
Toft, A. D., Jensen, L. B., Bruunsgaard, H., Ibfelt, T., Halkjær-Kristensen, J., Febbraio, M., & Pedersen, B. K. (2002). Cytokine response to eccentric exercise in young and elderly humans. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology, 283(1), C289-C295.  doi:
Uchida, M. C., Nosaka, K., Ugrinowitsch, C., Yamashita, A., Martins Jr, E., Moriscot, A. S., & Aoki, M. S. (2009). Effect of bench press exercise intensity on muscle soreness and inflammatory mediators. Journal of sports sciences, 27(5), 499-507.  doi:
Volume 1, Issue 2
September 2021
Pages 77-85
  • Receive Date: 17 June 2021
  • Revise Date: 26 August 2021
  • Accept Date: 31 August 2021
  • First Publish Date: 31 August 2021