A hypothesis about the role of exercise training intensities on bone turn over and muscle-bone cross talk in post-menopausal women: pH influences

Document Type : Hypothesis


1 Exercise Physiology, Department of Sport Injuries & Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Physical Education & Sport Sciences, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Science, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran

3 Exercise Physiology Research Center, Life Style Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Maternal, Fetal & Neonatal Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.


PH stress can be caused by menopause, poor nutrition, high protein intake, old age, prolonged strenuous and anaerobic exercise, anemia, diabetes, AIDS, and respiratory diseases. High calcium enters the bloodstream from the bones during the proton buffering due to metabolic acidosis, which the renal system excretes a significant amount of this calcium to eliminate the acidosis condition and regulate body pH. At the bone surface, this increase in hydrogen ions due to metabolic acidosis can destroy osteoblastic and strengthen osteoclast activity, which negative bone turnover and increases the amount of excreted calcium, thus accelerating the progress of osteoporosis. Due to the widespread prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and the provision of various therapies such as medication, estrogen therapy, and proper diet, in recent studies, special attention has been paid to the role of endurance and resistance exercise to decrease osteoporosis or prevent the development of this disease. Also exercise training increases irisin secretion from muscle tissue, which this myokine has beneficial effects on other tissues especially on bone. Irisin increases osteocytic survival and production of sclerostin in bone tissue, which is associated with bone remodeling. However, exercise training in some intensity through metabolic mechanisms can increase pH stress and acidosis and may contribute to the development of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.  As a result, the hypothesis of different intensities of exercise and their induced acidosis stimuli in postmenopausal women should be considered.

What is already known on this subject?

Numerous studies have evaluated the role of pH stress on the destruction of bone turn over. Exercise by stimulating the secretion of Myokines and Osteokines can improve the homeostasis of these cells, but different intensities of exercise, especially anaerobic exercise can destroy cell homeostasis by destroying the pH.


What this study adds?

It seems that although various exercises can destroy the bone turn over by expanding the pH, but Osteokines and Myokines such as irisin can neutralize this stress and have beneficial effects on bone metabolism in different exercise intensities in postmenopausal women.


Main Subjects

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Volume 1, Issue 1
June 2021
Pages 51-58
  • Receive Date: 16 March 2021
  • Revise Date: 04 May 2021
  • Accept Date: 22 May 2021
  • First Publish Date: 25 May 2021